Ancient Maya City and Protected Tropical Forests of Calakmul, Campeche

© IUCN / A. Putney
Mexico
Inscribed in
2014
Criteria
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(ix)
(x)
© IUCN / A. Putney
© IUCN / A. Putney

Summary

2017 Conservation Outlook

Finalised on
08 Nov 2017
Significant concern
The property is located within the wider Maya Forest and constitutes an integral and important component in the transboundary network of protected areas within that region. Forest loss and degradation in the Maya Forest caused, among others, by forest fires and illegal logging (as recent as 2017) are well-documented and will take a toll on the values of Calakmul unless mitigated and managed. Increased communication, coordination and cooperation between governmental and non-governmental actors, governmental levels and sectors and across international boundaries is needed. Also, finding sustainable economic activities for the local communities and ejidos is of particular importance. Public policies at the regional, national and state level require more meaningful consideration of the exceptional natural and cultural heritage of the Selva Maya. Even though the inscribed property enjoys formally adequate legal protection and structured management there are well-documented and serious concerns about the configuration and zonation of the protected area since the establishment of the biosphere reserve. Many observers have consistently stressed the shortcomings of the boundaries and zonation from both a socio-economic and a nature conservation perspective. While the history and consequences of past human use are remarkable basis for a human-environment forest system, much of the contemporary resource use is unsustainable. Some illegal resource uses may require reassessment while clearly damaging illegal resource use requires stricter enforcement of existing laws. Despite many challenges, the increased visibility and political interest that comes with World Heritage status of the now significantly enlarged area provides an opportunity to re-visit the management and conservation of Calakmul, including in light of the many other protected areas nearby.

Current state and trend of VALUES

High Concern
Trend
Deteriorating
The fast and ongoing land use changes and the loss and degradation of the wider Maya Forest undoubtedly have further direct and indirect impacts on the property. While still impressive, the renowned wildlife populations of Calakmul face increasing pressure from poaching, trade and, in the case of large cats, also predator control. The coincidence of conflicts and the limited ability to enforce existing laws calls for more participatory ways of understanding and negotiating local resource use. Recurrent forest fires and illegal logging are of concern.

Overall THREATS

High Threat
Calakmul benefits from its relatively central position within the larger Maya Forest and the de facto buffering functions through various large protected areas, including in Guatemala to the South. Ongoing forest loss and degradation in the wider region continue to pose a risk to long term conservation and landscape connectivity. This includes forest fires, illegal logging and longstanding infrastructure plans at the regional level and more recent plans to invest in tourism development. Tourism development comes with opportunities, but also raises important management questions, including as regards access roads and water and waste management. Within the property and its buffer zone, there are ongoing strong concerns about uncontrolled use, questions around zonation and boundary design and a lack of boundary demarcation. Natural disturbance factors such as fire and hurricanes are expected to result in stronger impacts as a function of anticipated climate change.

Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT

Some Concern
The area has long benefited from its remoteness and limited infrastructure in addition to a high degree of natural protection from the by vast surrounding forest areas. The formal protection was a key step in countering the governmental policies promoting regional development based on unsustainable exploitation of natural resources and poorly adapted land use. The drastic policy shift prevented the cultural and natural heritage from exploitation while also leading to poorly communicated and negotiated exclusion of local communities from traditionally used resources. Uncontrolled resource use and conflicts are common. Landscape level planning requires better coordination and cooperation across sectors and administrative boundaries. Management planning is well-structured but requires consolidated implementation and adequate resources. One particular concern is the insufficient coordination between agencies in charge of cultural and natural heritage, respectively. It is hoped that the inscription as a mixed site will encourage enhanced coordination. Coordination should also be improved to prevent and manage forest fires, being of legal or illegal nature, as well as illegal logging.

Full assessment

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Finalised on
08 Nov 2017

Description of values

Major and highly valuable remnant of a vast human-environment forest system

Criterion
(ix)
At slightly more than 300,000 hectares with an even larger buffer zone (together a total of 723,185 hectares) the property is a large and well-protected example of the coupled human-environment system sometimes referred to as the Selva Maya or Maya Forest (IUCN, 2014, Lawrence et al., 2004). Located in Southern Mexico along the border with Guatemala, the property and its buffer zone are embedded in a vast and extraordinary seasonal tropical forest system that extends into Guatemala, Belize and to a smaller extent El Salvador.
The Calakmul Reserve is characterized by its size, good state of conservation and continuity with other regions in the Yucatán Peninsula, Chiapas, Guatemala and Belize. It is considered to be the largest forest mass in Mexico and, together with the forests of Guatemala and Belize, the second largest remnant forest left in Latin America after the Amazon (WHC, 2015).
Following historic conversion and modification during the highly sophisticated Maya civilization, the forests continue to be shaped by past human use (IUCN, 2014).

Rare species and high species richness

Criterion
(x)
The forests within and beyond the property boast a remarkable species richness and provide critical habitats for numerous rare and threatened species. The Calakmul Reserve lies in the most important tropical forest region in North America, and protects the largest tropical forest reserve in Mexico, including part of the Maya Forest and forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor.

The Maya Forest is a heterogeneous landscape mosaic, including closed forests, seasonally inundated lowland forests and grasslands. Accordingly, the property offers a wide array of habitats and niches for a highly diverse flora and fauna (IUCN, 2014).
The area is home to 86 species of mammals (including five of the six cats that exist in Mexico, jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), margay (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarondi (Herpaolurus yagouaroundi); 358 species of birds (including the king vulture (Sarcoramphus papa), ocellated turkey (Agriochars ocellata), hawk eagle (Spizaetus ornatus), and parrots like Amazona albinifrons; 75 species of reptiles; 18 species of amphibians; 31 species of fish; 380 species of butterflies; and 1,500 species of flora (10% endemic). The Reserve has about 90 endemic species (SIMEC-CONANP 2017).
The vertebrate fauna is particularly noteworthy, with charismatic species including two endangered species of primates, Yucatán Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra) and Geoffroy’s Spider Monkey (Ateles geoffroyi). Calakmul is also home to important populations of the endangered Baird's Tapir (Tapirus bairdii) (IUCN, 2014 and IUCN Red List).
Sixty-two species of Melolonthinae, Rutelinae, Dynastinae, Cetoniinae, Scarabaeinae, Ceratocanthinae, Trogidae, y Passalidae are recorded from Calakmul (Morón-Ríos and Morón 2016).
Importance in regional connectivity
Many of the above values, such as major populations of large vertebrates, depend on habitats and landscape connectivity beyond the scale of the property. The property is a large and important component of the national and regional protected areas network, within and beyond the Maya Forest. Jointly with the contiguous Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Bala'an K'aax in the adjacent Mexican state of Quintana Roo, as well as with Mirador-Rio Azul National Park and Biotopo Naachtn-Dos Lagunas in Guatemala, which in turn is contiguous with the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Areas in Belize, the property forms a major protected area cluster. Despite important land use change in the wider forest region the property has maintained ecological linkages across the borders into Guatemala and Belize and to the Mexican Caribbean coast. This connectivity is important for many fauna, in particular for the endangered jaguar: about 900 hundred jaguars (almost half of the 2000 estimated for the entire Yucatan Peninsula) have been estimated to use the Calakmul Reserve (Chavez et al. 2006).
Remarkable geology and geomorphology
While not inscribed under criterion (viii) the property has a noteworthy karst geology featuring a wide spectrum of corresponding surface expressions. In a region of extremely scarce surface water, in particularly during the dry season, evaporites retaining water in so-called aguadas are crucial for both human beings and wildlife, constituting a direct link between the geology of the region, its biodiversity and human history (IUCN, 2014, Government of Mexico, 2013).

Assessment information

High Threat
Among the particularities of Calakmul is the fact that it is not only a fairly large site but also one that is embedded in a vast forest landscape. The property is contiguous with several other protected areas. Given the increasing pressures on this landscape in all countries, there is a risk of isolation unless functions and connectivity can be maintained at landscape levels beyond the property. Challenges in terms of insufficient sector coordination at the landscape and at the protected area level are well documented. In the property itself and its immediate surroundings, there continue to be concerns about poor natural resources management, uncontrolled resource use, including for illicit trade, and tensions with local communities. Of particular concern is the damage caused to the forests and fauna of the reserve by recurrent fires, as well as persistent illegal logging.
Dams/ Water Management or Use
High Threat
Outside site
Inappropriate use of vulnerable freshwater resources (e.g. Government of Mexico 2013).
Crops,
Livestock Farming / Grazing
High Threat
Inside site
Outside site
Traditional slash and burn agriculture produces significant impacts on the forest.
While small-scale in the property, both subsistence and commercial agriculture and cattle-raising cause consistent concern, aggravated by inadequate land use practices by immigrants from other parts of Mexico (Government of Mexico, 2013, Garcia-Frapolli et al. 2009, TNC n.d.).
Fire/ Fire Suppression
High Threat
Inside site
Outside site
Fires are a major natural disturbance factor but also a land clearance tool leading to an overlap between natural and anthropogenic factors. Risks of accidental fires could be increased by improved visitor access. There are some concerns about structural changes in the ecosystem and the role of fire in it, as dry seasons are expected to become more pronounced (Government of Mexico, 2013). Recurrent forest fires are a major threat to the Calakmul Reserve. For instance, from 2013 to 2017 at least 30 fires were reported to have destroyed several thousand hectares of forests in the core and buffer zones.
Invasive Non-Native/ Alien Species
Low Threat
Inside site
Outside site
Challenges include for example predation by feral pigs and Bracken Fern competing with native vegetation (e.g. Earp, 2011, Government of Mexico, 2013). Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is documented to be an agent of land use change causing many agricultural spaces to be abandoned (e.g. Earp, 2011, Schneider 2004). Reported feral and non-native vertebrate species include pigs, cattle, turkeys and Tilapia (Government of Mexico, 2013).
Logging/ Wood Harvesting,
Other Biological Resource Use
High Threat
Inside site
Outside site
Threats originate from human activities driven mainly by population grow and development. Those include forest fires, illegal logging and deforestation, subsistence hunting and poaching, slash and burn agriculture, conflicts with local people, tourism infrastructure; highways and roads

Widespread uncontrolled extraction of timber and non-timber forest products, including for illegal trade in plants, wildlife and wildlife derivates with multiple direct and indirect effects on the ecosystem and its natural values (e.g. IUCN, 2014, Government of Mexico, 2013, Garcia-Frapolli et al., 2009, TNC n.d.).
However, the most significant threats come from forest fires and deforestation.
A recent analysis (2017) of satellite photographs conducted by OPI Analytics estimated that between 2014 and 2016 illegal logging deforested around 1 km² in Calakmul, mainly of precious woods granadillo (Platymiscium yucatanum) and ciricote (Cordia dodecandra).
The Mexican Government also reported that in May 2017 illegal wood (granadillo and ciricote) was seized in the Reserve by the federal Environmental Gendarmery (https://www.gob.mx/conanp/prensa/gendarmeria-da-golpe-contra-la-tala-ilegal-en-calakmul).

These reports indicate that illegal logging persist in the Reserve.
Logging/ Wood Harvesting
High Threat
Outside site
Well-documented ongoing and intensified forest loss and degradation in the Maya Forest is impacting on the overall integrity of the natural resources in the region, including the property. This is partially driven by population growth, migration and improved access through improving road infrastructure (e.g. Government of Mexico, 2013, Garcia-Frapolli et al. 2009, TNC n.d., Ericson et al., 1999). The land use change coincides with a poor boundary design and zonation.
High Threat
In light of the publicly announced plans to promote tourism following World Heritage inscription, there is serious concern about the direct and indirect impacts of such development. New access and visitor infrastructure, increased water demand, waste and waste water management all would pose new challenges in the property which today receives very limited numbers of tourists.
Temperature extremes
High Threat
Inside site
Outside site
Increasing risk of droughts and occurrence of hurricanes may exceed the resilience of the system despite adaptations to these natural disturbance factors.
Tourism/ visitors/ recreation
High Threat
Inside site
extent of threat not known
Outside site
While current visitation is modest due to the location and limited access and facilities, highest level political statements and press releases leave no doubt about plans to promote tourism. This includes investments in access infrastructure and local tourism infrastructure. Tourism is closely related to the visit of the archaeological zone, but there are also places close to the road, such as camps, interpretive trails, and observation towers, which are important for the economic development of towns near the Reserve (Progress Report by the Government of Mexico 2016). In 2015, there were 31,474 visitors.
Utility / Service Lines,
Roads/ Railroads
High Threat
Inside site
extent of threat not known
Outside site
There exist regional plans to improve road infrastructure, including access to the Petén region of Guatemala under the Mesoamerica Project, formerly known as Plan Puebla Panama (www.proyectomesoamerica.org/). Regional infrastructure plans include plans for power lines and communication infrastructure under. One road crosses the buffer zone of the property. In 2015, some 6,186 vehicles entered the Reserve (Progress Report by the Government of Mexico 2016).
Calakmul benefits from its relatively central position within the larger Maya Forest and the de facto buffering functions through various large protected areas, including in Guatemala to the South. Ongoing forest loss and degradation in the wider region continue to pose a risk to long term conservation and landscape connectivity. This includes forest fires, illegal logging and longstanding infrastructure plans at the regional level and more recent plans to invest in tourism development. Tourism development comes with opportunities, but also raises important management questions, including as regards access roads and water and waste management. Within the property and its buffer zone, there are ongoing strong concerns about uncontrolled use, questions around zonation and boundary design and a lack of boundary demarcation. Natural disturbance factors such as fire and hurricanes are expected to result in stronger impacts as a function of anticipated climate change.
Relationships with local people
Serious Concern
The resource use conflicts with mostly poor local communities since the establishment of the protected area are well documented (e.g. Gaudry Sada 2013, García-Frapolli et al. 2009, Andrews 2006, Galindo-Leal, 1988).
The development of the Management Plan for the Property is a priority in this regard. The development of the Management Plan for the Property is a priority ion this regard.
Legal framework
Some Concern
While there is an adequate legal framework for both cultural and natural heritage, there are strong concerns about law enforcement and insufficient harmonization between nature conservation and other sectors. As indicated by the Government of Mexico (Progress Report by the Government of Mexico 2016), the main interest behind the registration of the archaeological zone (including Ancient Maya City and Protected Tropical Forests of Calakmul, Campeche) is to progressively guarantee complete and full protection. Through this, Mexico seeks to provide the highest protection to archaeological sites, develop the necessary public policies and protocols.
Enforcement
Data Deficient
The Government of Mexico reported (2016 Progress Report) plans for strengthening the surveillance and protection of the Property As follows: “… the main interest behind the registration of the archaeological zone (including Ancient Maya City and Protected Tropical Forests of Calakmul, Campeche) is to progressively guarantee complete and full protection and safekeeping under any circumstance. That is, with this measure Mexico: a) seeks to provide the highest protection to archaeological sites of great relevance to various assumptions impossible to foresee in advance, such as, natural or man caused disasters; and b) have public policies and protocols needed to prevent and respond timely and efficiently to any eventuality.”

The development of the Management Plan for the Property is a priority.
Illegal logging persists in the Reserve.
Integration into regional and national planning systems
Serious Concern
Lack of coherence of sector policies at the national level and across the international boundaries is widely recognized as ongoing key challenge.
Management system
Some Concern
Community involvement is formally possible but conflicts persist going back to the lack of involving local communities in the establishment of the biosphere reserve (García-Frapolli et al. 2009, Andrews 2006, Galindo-Leal, 1988).
Management effectiveness
Some Concern
Lack of system in place for assessing management effectiveness (IUCN 2013). The development of the Management Plan for the Property is a priority.
The National Commission on Natural Protected Areas (CONANP) has finalized or is finalizing an evaluation of the effectiveness of all or most federal protected areas, through its Sistema de Informacion, Monitoreo y Evaluacion para la Conservacion (SIMEC, https://simec.conanp.gob.mx/evaluacion). However, that information has not become publicly available as of 31 August 2017.
Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations
Data Deficient
The 2014 inscription decision (38COM 8B.16) included a number of requests and additionally encouraged defined conservation activities.
According to the Mexican government (Progress Report 2016), a document titled "General Principles of Collaboration between INAH and CONANP" is being revised to establish the terms for the protection of Calamus’s biodiversity values. INAH and CONANP together are (i) preparing a work plan for the Reserve; (ii) setting forth the Advisory Council and World Heritage Advisory Technical Sub-Council with representatives from relevant stakeholders; (iii) working towards developing a Vision Program for the Municipality of Calakmul 2013-2040 (supported by the German Technical Cooperation Agency, GIZ); (iv) modifying the 2004 decree expropriating 150,710 ha of forests; (v) working on a Management Plan; (vi) strengthening the surveillance and protection of the property; and (vii) developed and published numerous documents on ecosystems, species, environmental services, and expanded the archaeological scientific knowledge about the state of conservation, cultural affiliation, architectural styles among others.

It should, however, be noted that no information is available on the status of the joint Management Plan – a particularly important document – which was to be completed in late 2016.
Boundaries
Serious Concern
A function of land tenure and administrative boundaries, there is a longstanding and consistent documentation of shortcomings of both the boundary design and the zonation (e.g. Galindo-Leal 1988). In addition, the boundaries are not demarcated. The buffer zone design seems only partially compatible with the basic functions of buffer zones.
Sustainable finance
Effective
The Calakmul Biosphere Reserve receives annual budgets from the National Commission of Natural Protected Areas which covers the main operational costs. The site also receives grants for some community programmes. Additional funding comes from the Mexican Fund for the Conservation of Nature and the GEF (Nomination file, 2013). Over the last few years, there have been several projects which support the management of the Reserve, as well as the local communities and NGOs, and that have been implemented with resources from an alliance between the World Wildlife Fund – Mexico and the Carlos Slim Foundation (www.wwf.org.mx).
Staff training and development
Some Concern
There are strong indications that skills to facilitate public participation leave much room for improvement (García-Frapolli et al. 2009, Andrews 2006, Galindo-Leal, 1988).
Sustainable use
Some Concern
Separation of use regimes according to a zonation which was not negotiated with local communities (García-Frapolli et al. 2009, Andrews 2006, Galindo-Leal, 1988). The development of the Management Plan for the Property is a priority.
Education and interpretation programs
Some Concern
Currently limited facilities. Visitor education will become increasingly important in light of the planned promotion of tourism.
Tourism and visitation management
Some Concern
While currently of secondary importance due to low visitation, increasing numbers of visitors will require considerable preparation and investment.
Monitoring
Some Concern
Selective monitoring but no comprehensive monitoring framework (IUCN, 2013). The alliance WWF-Mexico and Carlos Slim Foundation has been supporting several research and conservation projects since 2009 (www.wwf.org.mx)
Research
Effective
Considerable research has been carried out by national and international institutions. ECOSUR in particular has generated a wealth of information from both the natural and social sciences, most of it publicly available. The alliance WWF-Mexico and Carlos Slim Foundation has been supporting several research and conservation projects since 2009 (www.wwf.org.mx)
Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site
The area has long benefited from its remoteness and limited infrastructure in addition to a high degree of natural protection from the by vast surrounding forest areas. The formal protection was a key step in countering the governmental policies promoting regional development based on unsustainable exploitation of natural resources and poorly adapted land use. The drastic policy shift prevented the cultural and natural heritage from exploitation while also leading to poorly communicated and negotiated exclusion of local communities from traditionally used resources. Uncontrolled resource use and conflicts are common. Landscape level planning requires better coordination and cooperation across sectors and administrative boundaries. Management planning is well-structured but requires consolidated implementation and adequate resources. One particular concern is the insufficient coordination between agencies in charge of cultural and natural heritage, respectively. It is hoped that the inscription as a mixed site will encourage enhanced coordination. Coordination should also be improved to prevent and manage forest fires, being of legal or illegal nature, as well as illegal logging.
Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site
Data Deficient
Data deficient
World Heritage values

Major and highly valuable remnant of a vast human-environment forest system

High Concern
Trend
Deteriorating
Increasing pressure on natural resources while simultaneously deficient in reserve design and zonation (García-Frapolli et al. 2009, Andrews, 2006, Galindo-Leal, 1988, TNC, n.d.). Recurrent forest fires represent a serious concern, as well as illegal logging (La Prensa, 2017).

Rare species and high species richness

High Concern
Trend
Deteriorating
Ongoing pressure on wildlife through poaching, predator control and illicit trade in species and derivates (Government of Mexico, 2013, Parkswatch, 2002, TNC, n.d.).
Assessment of the current state and trend of World Heritage values
The fast and ongoing land use changes and the loss and degradation of the wider Maya Forest undoubtedly have further direct and indirect impacts on the property. While still impressive, the renowned wildlife populations of Calakmul face increasing pressure from poaching, trade and, in the case of large cats, also predator control. The coincidence of conflicts and the limited ability to enforce existing laws calls for more participatory ways of understanding and negotiating local resource use. Recurrent forest fires and illegal logging are of concern.
Assessment of the current state and trend of other important biodiversity values
High Concern
Trend
Deteriorating
There are no documented hints at major threats to the geological features and values of the property. However, the site’s connectivity within a wider region has been deteriorating.

Additional information

Environmental services
The forests of Calakmul are an integral part of the hydrological system that reduces the risk of flooding. It is also an important area for water recharging for the whole Yucatan Peninsula, a key factor in the development of the Maya Culture in the Ancient City of Calakmul and its surroundings (SoOUV, 2012).
Knowledge
Given the widespread transformation and degradation of the Maya Forest, relatively large areas with a limited direct human footprint are an increasingly scarce scientific resource.
Health and recreation
Calakmul has high touristic potential based on both its cultural and natural wealth. The distribution of benefits – and costs – depends on the planning and implementation of tourism development.
Environmental services
The Calakmul Reserve lies in the most important tropical forest region in North America, protects the largest tropical forest in Mexico, including part of the Maya Forest and forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor. It is the largest forest mass in Mexico and, together with the forests of Guatemala and Belize, the second largest remnant forest left in Latin America after the Amazon. The Calakmul-Sian Ka`an corridor connects two of the most important biosphere reserves in Mexican tropic, and its forests are one of the most important carbon sinks in Mexico.
The natural resources of what is today the property were the basis of a sophisticated past civilization. Governmental programmes in the second half of the 20th century focused on exploitation of natural resources. The Calakmul-Sian Ka`an corridor connects two of the most important biosphere reserves in the Mexican tropic, and their forests are one of the most important carbon sinks for the country. While more recent efforts put more focus on conservation, the effective implementation remains to be consolidated. The contemporary dilemma boils down to the common need to balance conservation with use. This includes the planned promotion of tourism development.
More than 20,000 people live in ejidos (communal land) in and around Calakmul and depend on the forest for their livelihoods. The quality of life for these communities has deteriorated due to threats to the forest such as unsustainable ranching, road construction, illegal hunting, illegal logging, forest fires, and poorly planned tourism development.
Organization/ individuals Brief description of Active Projects
1 GIZ (formerly GTZ), KfW and “Comisión Centroamericana de Ambiente y Desarrollo (CCAD)” Regional progrmme “Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Selva Maya” operating in Belize, Guatemala and Mexico. Activities in Mexico build on earlier project “Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Regional Development in Southeast Mexico, (PROSURESTE)”.
2 Mesomerican Biological Corridor Major regional conservation initiative by 8 countries formalized in 1997 based on even earlier discussions (“Paseo Pantera”) with many activities in Campeche and specifically in Calakmul. This includes a wealth of information on the corridor between Calakmul and Sian Ka’an, the World Heritage property in the neighboring state of Quintana Roo.
3 El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR) Public research institution (natural and social sciences) with a focus on sustainable development in Southern Mexico. Numerous past and current research projects in and around Calakmul, documented in publicly accessible database.
4 Inter-American Development Bank (IADB or BID) According to the nomination dossier there was a Project on “Management Promotion of the Trinational Ecosystem of the Maya Tropical Forest (Mexico-Belize-Guatemala)”, a cooperation based on 2005 trilateral MoU between Mexico, Belize and Guatemala. Status and results are not specified.
5 Alianza WWF-Fundacion Carlos Slim Many projects focusing on consolidating community reserves for sustainable forest management, developing sustainable economic alternatives and employment for local communities, monitoring endangered and threatened species, updating the management plans of community reserves, etc.
Site need title Brief description of potential site needs Support needed for following years
1 Local and indigenous sustainable livelihoods, and knowledge and practice Considering the longstanding natural resource use, including scarce and vulnerable freshwater, as well as the impact of forest fires and illegal logging, there is an urgent need to develop and implement sustainable viable economic alternatives and employment for the ejidos and local communities, as well as the knowledge and practices of the local communities deserve full consideration in the management of the property.
2 Coordination and cooperation of management and conservation in the Selva Maya The property is an integral part of a vast and contiguous network of protected areas of different categories and governance types. Despite many past and current efforts there is much room for improved coordination and cooperation. Examples in the state of Campeche include the contiguous “Zones of Ecological Protection” Balam-Kú and Balam-Kin. Further opportunities in Mexico include cooperation with the neighboring state of Quintana Roo, including but not limited to the connectivity between Calakmul and Sian Ka’an. Across the border with Guatemala, the Mirador-Rio Azul National Park and Biotopo Protegido Naachtún Dos Lagunas deserve to be mentioned in particular as they are adjacent to the property
3 Sustainable Tourism Development Official speeches and press releases at the occasion of the inscription of the significantly enlarged and now mixed World Heritage property focus on ambitious tourism plans. This implies risk of direct and indirect impacts (water consumption, waste and wastewater management, immigration, additional infrastructure), as well as opportunities in terms of conservation funding, local creation of income and employment and visitor education. Careful planning seems indispensable in order to balance the expected economic benefits with social and environmental costs.

References

References
1 Andrews, J.M., 2006. Shifts of strategies and focus of the conservation efforts of PRONATURA on the Yucatan Peninsula: a personal history. Landscape and Urban Planning 74: 193–203.
2 BirdLife International. 2012. Important Bird Areas factsheet: Maya-Lacandon. www.birdlife.org
3 Bray, D.B., Duran, E., Ramos, V.H., Mas, J.F., Velazquez, A., McNab, R.B., Barry, D., Radachowsky, J. 2008. Tropical Deforestation, Community Forests, and Protected Areas in the Maya Forest. Ecology and Society 13 (2): 56. www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol13/iss2/art56/
4 Briceño-Méndez, M., E.J. Naranjo, S. Mandujano, M. Altricher and R. Reyna-Hurtado . 2106. Responses of two sympatric species of peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu) to hunting in Calakmul, Mexico. Tropical Conservation Science 9: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082916667331
5 Castillo, M.A. 2003. The Mexico-Guatemala Border: New Controls on Transborder Migrations in View of Recent Integration Schemes? FRONTERA NORTE 15(29): 35-64
6 Chavez, C, G. Ceballos and M. Amin. 2006. Ecología poblacional del jaguar y sus implicaciones para la conservación en la península de Yucatán. Pp. 91-100. In: Ceballos, G., C. Chavez, R. List and H. Zarza (eds). Conservacion y Manejo del Jaguar en México: Estudios de Caso y Perspectivas. Conabio, Alianza WWF-Telcel, UNAM, México.
7 Chowdhury, R.R. 2006. Landscape change in the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico: Modeling the driving forces of smallholder deforestation in land parcels. Applied Geography 26: 129–152.
8 Conservation International. 2013. Mesoamerica. Hotspot description. www.conservation.org/where/priority_areas/hotspots/north_ce…
9 Earp, C. 2011. Characterizing Invasive Species: The Case of Bracken Fern (Pteridium aquilinum) in the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor Sian Ka’an-Calakmul, Mexico. Master’s Thesis. The State University of New Jersey.
10 Ericson J., Freudenberger, M.S., Boege, E. 1999. Population Dynamics, Migration, and the Future of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve. Occasional Paper No. 1 Program on Population and Sustainable Development (PSD). American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
11 Galindo-Leal, C. 1988. Diseño de reservas: el “mal congénito” de Calakmul. Biodiversitas 4(17): 9-15.
12 García-Frapolli, E., Ramos-Fernández, G., Galicia, E., Serrano, A. 2009. The complex reality of biodiversity conservation through Natural Protected Area policy: Three cases from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Land Use Policy 26: 715–722.
13 Gaudry Sada, K.H. 2013. Territorial governance through nature conservation regimes. An analysis of spatial planning traditions and the role of UNESCO Biosphere Reserves. Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Dr. rer. Nat. Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg, Germany. www.freidok.uni-freiburg.de/volltexte/9144/pdf/GAUDRY_2013…
14 Gorenflo, L.J. and Katrina Brandon 2003. Demographic Change, Land Use, and Conservation in and Around Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Human Dimensions of Biodiversity, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science Conservation International Washington, DC, USA http://www.academia.edu/7257479/Demographic_Change_Land_Use….
15 Gorenflo, L.J. and Katrina Brandon 2003. Demographic Change, Land Use, and Conservation in and Around Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Human Dimensions of Biodiversity, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science Conservation International Washington, DC, USA http://www.academia.edu/7257479/Demographic_Change_Land_Use….
16 Gorenflo, L.J., Brandon, K. 2003. Demographic Change, Land Use, and Conservation in and Around Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Draft paper.
17 Government of Mexico. 2013. Nomination of Ancient Maya City and Protected Tropical Forests of Calakmul, Campeche.
18 Government of Mexico. 2017. https://www.gob.mx/conanp/prensa/gendarmeria-da-golpe-contr….
19 IUCN, 2014. World Heritage Nomination – IUCN Technical Evaluation. Ancient Maya City And Protected Forests Of Calakmul, Campeche (extension And Renomination Of The “ancient Maya City Of Calakmul, Campeche”). Gland, Switzerland.
20 La Prensa (2012). http://laprensa.peru.com/actualidad/noticia-medio-ambiente-…
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