Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha and Atol das Rocas Reserves
Peaks of the Southern Atlantic submarine ridge form the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago and Rocas Atoll off the coast of Brazil. They represent a large proportion of the island surface of the South Atlantic and their rich waters are extremely important for the breeding and feeding of tuna, shark, turtle and marine mammals. The islands are home to the largest concentration of tropical seabirds in the Western Atlantic. Baia de Golfinhos has an exceptional population of resident dolphin and at low tide the Rocas Atoll provides a spectacular seascape of lagoons and tidal pools teeming with fish.
2017 Conservation Outlook
Current state and trend of VALUES
Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT
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Description of values
Spectacular seascape and the highest known population of resident dolphins
A key role in the process of reproduction, dispersal and colonisation by marine organisms in the entire Tropical South Atlantic
Biodiversity and endangered species of Southern Atlantic
Based on several indicators of highlighted impacts and threats, such as of the tourism carrying capacity and the disturbance of the dolphins’ habitat, it can be inferred that the destination is at risk of s loss of part ofimpacts on its biodiversity, which may cause it to decline, if effective actions are not sufficiently implemented. There are, however, initiatives and efforts to reduce and control these risks (Zanirato, 2014).
Inhabitant population has increased between 1991 and 2010 by about 1000 individuals – residents only, visitors are not included in this number- (Santana et al, 2016). The increase is of great concern to experts as demographic density is 154,55 hab / km2, within the 17 Km2 of the main island (according to IBGE in 2010).
The Management Plan indicates that demographic density in the environmental preservation area is 290,1hab / km2 within 8 km2, but only resident and visitation areas are to be considered, this number could reach the 1.000 hab / km2. In order to avoid future collapse of the island, supporting capacity studies suggest this number should be maintained (Santana et al, 2016).
Environmental NGOs take part in discussions about planning, community capacity-building and monitoring, and act as facilitators (Estima, D. et al, 2013). Additionally, the Sustainability Program or the FN Archipelago – Noronha +20, which is an interinstitutional pact aiming at the social and environmental well-being of the archipelago focuses on critical issues ranging from urban and public use to research, education and health (Programa de sustentabilidad Noronha + 20, 2011).
Co-management mechanism processes between local fisheries and biodiversity-related institutions, particularly the PA system, seem counterproductive, as conservation activities are not fully integrated into small-scale fisheries as to provide benefits to these communities (Cantareli, et al., 2016).
The Atol das Rocas Biological Reserve is banned from public access and managed for the protection of species and for research. The Reserve benefits from surveillance by the Brazilian Navy and the Air Force, notably as concerns fishing and tourism activities, while the Nationa Parks has a Sustainable Development and Ecotourism Management Plan, strictly controling the development of tourism infrastructure and visits (SoUV, 2015).
The updating of the management plans (Santana, 2016; ICMBio, 2017) suggests adequate responses are being proposed by the PA authority to face the new challenges to control illegal activities and reinforce management.
The new management plan has an education and interpretation program (ICMBio, 2017), but it’s effectiveness is still to be assessed.
As a result of the and unorganized growth of the tourism activity, the increase of the lodging infrastructure without proper sanitary conditions, the expanding erosion and degradation process of drainage and water basins and overall degradation of natural ecosystems, capacity of the ecosystem to preserve species and face disturbance is being compromised. The intense visitation of boats facilitates the spread of exotic species from several parts of Brasil and the world (ICMBio, 2017).
The National Park has a Sustainable Development and Ecotourism Management Plan which was implemented with the support of local people, strictly controlling the development of tourism infrastructure and visits, and also covers the urbanized areas located outside the property (SoUV, 2015).
Fishing data indicate the need to elaborate a joint resource management plan that results in the valuation of the artisanal fisherman and the sustainability of the fishing activity, including a monitoring strategy (Domínguez et al, 2015).
The Noronha +20 Sustainability Observatory is a proposal of management and monitoring instrument to follow up actions in the Plan, organize and collect information and disseminate actions and results (Programa de sustentabilidad Noronha + 20, 2011).
|№||Organization/ individuals||Brief description of Active Projects|
|1||Reef Check Brazil||RC Brazil has just received funding from PROBIO, a division of the Brazilian Ministry of Environment, to monitor the 3,000 km of reef along the Northeastern coast. Four pilot locations have been selected: Abrolhos Reef, Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, the Coral Coast MPA and the Maracajaú Reefs.|
|2||Brazilian National Coral Reef Monitoring Program||Started in 2002, and includes all major reef areas in Brazil, including Fernado de Noronha and Atol da Rocas (Rodriguez-Ramirez,et al, 2008.)|
|3||Project GOLFINHO ROTADOR||Research on the spinner dolphin, provision of visitor information on the species, advice for conservation policies and efforts towards achieving sustainability for human activities at Fernando de Noronha.|
|4||Project TAMAR||Research and protection of nesting marine turtle populations on Fernando de Noronha. Maintenance of a visitor center with facilities for environment-related lectures and events used by several other institutions on a regular basis.|
|5||Fernando de Noronha’s shark project, Brazil: Participative fisheries monitoring||Capacitate the fishermen for to implement a participative fisheries monitoring in Fernando de Noronha Archipelago and to incorporate the local community as the main agent of the shark management program.|
|6||Impact assessment of teiú (Salvator merianae) to health and biodiversity conservation in the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago||Understand the sanitary situation state of teiús populations in FN and their interferience in the health of the ecosystem|
|7||Sanitary, reproductive and conservation assessment of mabuia (Trachylepis atlantica) in the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago||Risk analysis to health of the mabuias populations possed by introduced species mainly the lagarto lizzard, in the Fernando de Noronha island.|
|8||Impact assessement of the mocó (Kerodon rupestris) in the Marine National Park and the environmental protection area of Fernando Noronha||(I) access the dinamic structure of the moco pupulation (II) their general health condition (III) understand the relation between the residents and tourists of the Island and the species (IV) identify dietary componentes (V) identify costs and benefits of different management options to control mocó populations and (VI) point to those more adequate options for the protected area|
|№||Site need title||Brief description of potential site needs||Support needed for following years|
|1||.||Development of a World Heritage interpretation program to make residents and visitors aware of its meaning and benefits|
|2||.||Development of a trust fund to finance the long-term management of the property.|
|3||.||Development and implement a monitoring system to monitor the effects of tourism, illegal fishing and other threats on the general condition of the ecosystem. Next 3 years|
|1||Barbosa, Catia, et al. 2012. Foraminifer-based Coral Reef Health Assessment for Southwestern Atlantic Offshore Archipelagos, Brazil. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 42, no. 2, p. 169–183, April 2012. http://www.uff.br/ecosed/JFR2012.PDF|
|2||Cantareli, C., Ramirez, M. & Begossi, A. (2016) The Socio-ecological system of selected Brazilian small-scale fisheries. NISANTA Bioscience Vol. 5 nº 5 (2016) Ed. Especial PPG-ECOMAR p. 382-394|
|3||De Freitas Prazeres, Martina. 2011. Biomarcadores de Exposicao ao Zinco em Amphistegina lessonii (Amphisteginidae, Forminifera) do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, PE, Brasil.. Dissertation, Federal University of Rio Grande.|
|4||Domínguez, P., Zeineddine, G., Rotundo, L., Barrera, W. & Ramirez, M. (2015). A pesca artesanal no arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha (PE). Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, São Paulo, 42(1): 241–251.|
|5||Estima, D.C.; Martins, F.M.C.P.F.; Rabinovici, A.; Ventura, M.A.M. A atuação das Organiza- ções Não-Governamentais ambientalistas no turismo em ilhas: o caso de Fernando de Noro- nha (PE). Revista Brasileira de Ecoturismo, São Paulo, v.6, n.1, jan/abr-2013, pp.153-170.|
|6||Feitosa, M.J.S., Gómez, C.R.P. (2013) Aplicação do Tourism Ecological Footprint Method para avaliação dos Impactos Ambientais do Turismo em Ilhas: um estudo em Fernand. Revista Brasileira de Pesquisa em Turismo, DOI: 10.7784/rbtur.v7i2.509.|
|7||Gaeta, J.d.C., Silva, M.d.B., Godoy, T. &Cruz, R. (2015). Update on the lobster species from Rocas Atoll Marine Reserve, Brazil. Check List 11(4): 1705|
|8||Gracia, José & Clapis, Ricardo (2008). Fernando de Noronha’s shark project, Brazil: Participative fisheries monitoring, final report. Conservation Ladership Program.|
|9||Gracia, José & Clapis, Ricardo (2008). Fernando de Noronha’s shark project, Brazil: Participative fisheries monitoring, final report. Conservation Ladership Program.|
|10||ICMBio, 2007. Plano de Manejo para a Reserva Biológica do Atol das Rocas. http://www.icmbio.gov.br/portal/images/stories/imgs-unidade…, accessed July 2017.|
|11||ICMBio, 2011a. Programa de Sustentabilidade para o Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha; uma Construcao Participativa.|
|12||ICMBio, 2011a. Programa de Sustentabilidade para o Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha; uma Construcao Participativa.|
|13||ICMBio, 2011c. Planejamento. http://www.icmbio.gov.br/portal/images/stories/imgs-unidade…|
|14||ICMBio, 2012. http://www.icmbio.gov.br/portal/o-que-fazemos/visitacao/ucs…|
|15||ICMBio, 2017. Plano de Manejo para Área de Proteccao Ambiental de Fernando de Noronha - Rocas - São Pedro e São Paulo in http://www.icmbio.gov.br/portal/component/content/article?i…, accessed July 2017.|
|16||Instituto Brasileiro Medicina da Conservacao – TRIADE. Programa de Manejo de Espécies Invasoras no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, 2015 in http://www.triade.org.br/especies-invasoras-em-ambientes-in…, accessed in July 2017.|
|17||Instituto Brasileiro Medicina da Conservacao – TRIADE. Programa de Manejo de Espécies Invasoras no Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, 2015 in http://www.triade.org.br/especies-invasoras-em-ambientes-in…, accessed in July 2017.|
|18||Luiz, Osmar, 2012. Work in progress to assess damage by recreational diving activity and establish carrying capacities for specific sites. Macquarie University, Australia.|
|19||Mohr, L., Castro, J.W.A, Costa, P.M.S &Alves, R.J.V (2009). Ilhas oceánicas brasileiras: da pesquisa ao manejo, Instituto Chico Mendes para la Biodiversidade, Ministerio do Meio Ambiente.|
|20||Programa de sustentabilidad para el Archipiélago de fernando de Norohna: Noronha + 20 (2011). Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservación de la Biodiversidad.|
|21||Rodriguez-Ramirez, et all. 2008. Status of Coral Reefs of the World, 2008. http://www.docentes.unal.edu.co/sezeas/docs/Rodriguez-Ramir…|
|22||Santana, H., Silva, R.M.C.M.O., Carvalho, M.N.M.A., Frutuoso & Brandao S.S.F. (2016). A importancia das Unidades de Conservacao do Archipiélago de Fernando de Noronha. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Pernambuco. Brasil. DOI:10.15628/holos.2016.4217|
|23||Statement of Outstanding Universal Value of the Brazilian Atlantic Islands, World Heritage Centre website, 2015|
|24||UNEP-WCMC Data Sheet, 2011.|
|25||Vieira, Bianca (2016). Animais exóticos ameaçam espécies nativas em Fernando de Noronha. Facultad de Medicina Veterinária y Zootécnia, Universidad de Sao Paulo in http://citrus.uspnet.usp.br/aun/exibir?id=7665&ed=1332&f=28, accessed July 2017.|
|26||Zanirato, Silvia y Tomazzoni, Edgard (2014): “A sustentabilidade do turismo em Fernando de Noronha (PE-Brasil)”, Revista Turydes: Turismo y Desarrollo, n. 17 in http://www.eumed.net/rev/turydes/17/noronha.html, accessed July 2017.|