Gondwana Rainforests of Australia
Australia, Inscribed in  1986
Criteria : viii, ix

Gondwana Rainforests of Australia

Learn more about the state of conservation of this natural World Heritage site by scrolling down to read assessment summaries.More details can be found by navigating to the "Full references" tab, where conservation issues, benefits and projects are cited alongside values, threats, and protection and management.Sources of information are listed under references.

Finalised on 15 Jun 2014
Conservation Outlook

Good with some concerns

The Gondwana Rainforests is a serial property composed of 41 component parts, ranging in size from 36 hectares to 39,120 hectares. Each of the component parts conserve different values and are faced with different threats and management responses. More information is required for each component part before an assessment of the conservation status of the site as a whole can be more comprehensively assessed. However, in general the values for which the site was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1986, with a large extension in 1994, have been mostly maintained apart from a decline in some significant species. Despite state-of-the-art management, given the large number of threats from both within and outside the site and potential additional threats brought about by climate change, the conservation outlook at this point in time is good with some concerns.

Values

Low Concern Trend: Data Deficient
Current state and Trend of values
Low Concern

While the geological values appear stable, the trends for some threatened species seem to be deteriorating, despite recovery and action plans. The greatest concern is for the amphibian species within the property, although declines in indicator bird species have also been reported. However this analysis remains superficial and more monitoring data is needed. In addition, if invasive species including pathogens continue to increase, natural ongoing evolutionary processes will be compromised. Although many biodiversity values are being well conserved in the site, the situation in the Gondwana Rainforests is of some concern.

Threats

High Threat
Overall Threats
High Threat

Although the list of current and potential threatening processes to the property is long, there have been major management responses to these threats. However even with excellent management response, given the sheer number and diversity of threats, the multi-use functions of the property and the somewhat fragmented disposition of its component parts, as well as the unquantified effect of climate change, the threats are still assessed as high.

Protection and Management

Effective
Overall Protection and management
Effective

Protection and management of the component parts appears to be highly to mostly effective. The only question is, given this is a serial property, whether all the component parts are adequately buffered and as connected as possible. If it were possible to continue improving some boundary issues this would confer an even better protection of World Heritage values within the site.

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Assessment Information
Finalised on 15 Jun 2014

Values

While the geological values appear stable, the trends for some threatened species seem to be deteriorating, despite recovery and action plans. The greatest concern is for the amphibian species within the property, although declines in indicator bird species have also been reported. However this analysis remains superficial and more monitoring data is needed. In addition, if invasive species including pathogens continue to increase, natural ongoing evolutionary processes will be compromised. Although many biodiversity values are being well conserved in the site, the situation in the Gondwana Rainforests is of some concern.

Low Concern

World Heritage Values
Low Concern Trend: Data Deficient

Endemic and threatened reptiles
Data Deficient Stable

About 110 species of reptiles, including the world’s largest skink the Land Mullet (Egernia (=Bellatorias) major). Several other species with the major part of their distribution within property include Southern Angle-headed Dragon Gonocephalus spinipes; Northern Leaf-tailed Gecko Phyllurus 'cornutus' (probably two species); Rainforest Cool-skink Harrisoniascincus (=Cautula) zia, Three-toed Snake-tooth Skink Coeranoscincus reticulatus; Border Ranges Shadeskink Saproscincus (=Lampropholis) challengerii; Montane Sunskink Lamphrophlis caligula (restricted to Barrington Tops region); Short-limbed Snake-skink Ophioscincus truncatus and Murray’s Skink Eulamprus murrayi (Nomination, 1994).

Endemic and threatened frogs
Critical Deteriorating

Some 45 species of frogs, about 25% of Australia’s total frog fauna, includes the significant species the Hip-pocket Frog Assa darlingtoni . Other frogs with distributions largely confined to the site include Mountain Frog Philoria (=Kyarranus) kundagungan; Loveridge’s Frog P. (=K.) loveridgei; Sphagnum Frog P. (=K.) sphagnicolus; Fleay’s Frog Mixophyes fleayi; Booroolong Frog (Litoria (= Utoria) booroolongensis; Pearson’s Frog L. pearsoniana and Glandular Frog L. subglandulosa (Nomination, 1994).

Endemic and threatened birds
Low Concern Deteriorating

More than 270 species of birds have been recorded (about 38% of all Australian birds) with two species of lyrebirds (Albert’s Lyrebird (Menura alberti) and Superb Lyrebird (M. novaehollandiae) and the rare Rufous Scrub-bird (Atrichornis rufescens) particularly significant. Other species listed as rare in the region include the Coxen's Fig-Parrot (Cyclopsitta diophthalma coxeni), Plumed Frogmouth (Podargus ocellatus plumiferus), Topknot Pigeon (Lopholaimus antarcticus), Wonga Pigeon (Leucosarcia melanoleuca), Black-breasted Button-quail (Turnix melanogaster) and Eastern Bristle-bird (Dasyornis brachypterus) (Nomination, 1994).

Endemic and threatened mammals
Data Deficient Deteriorating

The Gondwana Rainforests protects endemic and threatened mammals. While no mammals are restricted to the site, the region represents the major distribution of the Hastings River Mouse (Pseudomys oralis) and Parma Wallaby Macropus parma). Thirty-one species of bats, half of all Australia’s bat species, occur in the site (IUCN Evaluation 1994; SoOUV, 2012).

Endemic and threatened plants
Low Concern Stable

The Gondwana Rainforests protects the largest and best stands of rainforest habitat remaining in this region, containing many endemic and threatened plant species. Altogether 170 families, 695 genera and 1625 species of vascular plants have been recorded, with about 150 endemics (IUCN Evaluation, 1994; SoOUV, 2012).

Outstanding examples of ongoing evolutionary processes
Low Concern Stable

Ongoing evolutionary processes continue within the site’s rainforests which have been described as ‘an archipelago of refugia, a series of distinctive habitats that characterise a temporary endpoint in climatic and geomorphological evolution’. The distances between these ‘islands’ of rainforest represent barriers to the flow of genetic material for those taxa which have low dispersal ability, and this pressure has created the potential for continued speciation (SoOUV, 2012).

Outstanding examples of relict and other vertebrate and invertebrate species
Data Deficient Deteriorating

The site contains an outstanding number of songbird species, including lyrebirds (Menuridae), scrub-birds (Atrichornithidae), treecreepers (Climacteridae) and bowerbirds and catbirds (Ptilonorhynchidae), belonging to some of the oldest lineages of passerines that evolved in the Late Cretaceous. Outstanding examples of other relict vertebrate and invertebrate fauna from ancient lineages linked to the break-up of Gondwana also occur in the site (SoOUV, 2012). Relict frogs include all frogs in Myobatrachidae and Hylidae, families having Gondwanan origins. Relict species of reptiles include chelid turtles Emydura signata and Elseya latisternum, Leaf-tailed Gecko (Saltuarius spp.) and the Southern Angle-headed Dragon (Hypsilurus spinipes). Relict invertebrates include fresh-water crayfish; land snails; velvet worms; a number of beetle families including flightless carabid beetles; the second largest butterfly in Australia the Richmond Birdwing (Troides richmondia) and glow-worms (Nomination, 1994; Hunter, 2004).

Outstanding examples of relict plant species
Data Deficient Stable

Age of the Pteridophytes’ from the Carboniferous Period with some of the oldest elements of the world’s ferns and and the ‘Age of Conifers’ in the Jurassic Period with one of the most significant centres of survival for Araucarians (the most ancient and phylogenetically primitive of the world’s conifers) are represented in the site. Likewise the site provides an outstanding record of the ‘Age of the Angiosperms’. This includes a secondary centre of endemism for primitive flowering plants originating in the Early Cretaceous, the most diverse assemblage of relict angiosperm taxa representing the primary radiation of dicotyledons in the mid-Late Cretaceous, a unique record of the evolutionary history of Australian rainforests representing the ‘golden age’ of the Early Tertiary, and a unique record of Miocene vegetation that was the antecedent of modern temperate rainforests in Australia (SoOUV, 2012).

Outstanding examples of significant ongoing geological processes
Good Stable

When Australia separated from Antarctica following the break-up of Gondwana, new continental margins developed and volcanoes erupted in sequence along the east coast resulting in the Tweed, Focal Peak, Ebor and Barrington volcanic shields. This sequence of volcanos is significant as it enables the dating of the geomorphic evolution of eastern Australia through the study of the interaction of these volcanic remnants with the eastern highlands. The Tweed Shield erosion caldera is possibly the best preserved erosion caldera in the world, notable for its size and age, for the presence of a prominent central mountain mass (Wollumbin/Mt Warning), and for the erosion of the caldera floor to basement rock. All three stages relating to the erosion of shield volcanoes (the planeze, residual and skeletal stages) are readily distinguishable. Further south, the remnants of the Ebor Volcano also provide an outstanding example of the ongoing erosion of a shield volcano (SoOUV, 2012).

Other Biodiversity values
NA Trend: NA

Threats

Although the list of current and potential threatening processes to the property is long, there have been major management responses to these threats. However even with excellent management response, given the sheer number and diversity of threats, the multi-use functions of the property and the somewhat fragmented disposition of its component parts, as well as the unquantified effect of climate change, the threats are still assessed as high.

High Threat

Current Threats
High Threat

Although the list of threatening processes to the property is long, there have been major management responses to these threats. However, even with excellent management response, given the sheer volume and diversity of threats facing the various component parts of the property, the threats are still assessed as high.

Housing/ Urban Areas
High Threat

Incompatible land-use on adjoining properties and pressure for residential and tourist development due to increasing urbanization and population pose a high threat. Diversity in local government zoning policies creates a potential for inconsistent planning (Periodic Report, 2003). Off-site activities such as clearing and erosion within upstream catchments and creation of urban landfills near the site are a potential if not current threat for biodiversity values.

Tourism/ visitors/ recreation
Low Threat

Tourism development, due to increasing visitor pressure and infrastructure (Periodic Reoprt, 2003) is a threat included in park management plans. More than one million people are expected to settle in South East Queensland in the next 20 years (Sunshine Coast Council http://www.sunshinecoast.qld.gov.au, 2012).

Fire/ Fire Suppression
Low Threat

Uncontrolled or inappropriate use of fire is considered a threat to the values of the site (Periodic report, 2003). A better understanding of the interactions between fire and rainforest is necessary to develop fire management strategies. In particular, fire management must be designed to suit not only the rainforest areas but also the surrounding habitats (Hunter, 2004).

Other
High Threat

The site is a serial property of eight separate groups of reserves composed of 41 component parts (http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/368/). Some of these components are very small with little or no connectivity to other parts and in some cases no buffer zone. The size of small components such as the 136 hectare Iluka Nature Reserve, which is being surrounded by houses and has a major Bitou Bush invasion on the coastal side, is an example of the intrinsic threat of some small and fragmented components in this serial property.

Invasive Non-Native/ Alien Species
High Threat

A variety of invasive plant species have been recorded including Bitou Bush and Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata and subsp. monilifera) which affect coastal areas; Mist Flower (Ageratina riparia), Crofton Weed (Ageratina adenophora) Lantana (Lantana camara), Camphor Laurel (Cinnamomum camphora and Kahill ginger (Hedychium gardnerianum), Madeira Vine (Andredera cordifolia), Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius) and others. Management response to these invasives have been strong with Threat Abatement Plans (e.g. DEC, 2006) and management plans for most of the reserves in place. However despite the best plans, these invasive species continue to affect the values of the site (SOC, 2003). It appears that there are still large areas of the property which are uninvaded and as of 2003 the values are considered to have been maintained (Periodic Report, 2003), although increased invasive plant issues, particularly with climate change, is expected. Introduced animals include fox (Vulpes vulpes), rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), feral cat (Felis catus), black rat (Rattus rattus) the common house mouse (Mus musculus), goat (Capra hircus), wild dog (Canis lupus familiaris or hybrids with Canis lupus dingo), feral pig (Sus scrofa), feral deer (Cervidae spp.) and others. All these animals have an impact on the park either by displacement, predation or competition and their management is included in management plans (PWS, 1998; PWS, 2005; DERC, 2011). Straying stock (cattle, Bos taurus) pose a problem in some parts of the site (Chester & Bushnell, 2005). A number of introduced pathogens include Phytophthora cinnamomi, a fungus which infects native plants, Amphibian Chytrid Disease infecting native frogs; Psittacine Circoviral (beak and feather) Disease infecting parrots and Myrtle Rust Disease and Bell Miner Disease (Horton, 2012) which affects Eucalypts. All these pathogens are dealt with in management plans although continue to pose high threat. It will be quite difficult to impose biosecurity controls on this site to keep the pathogens out.

Storms/Flooding
High Threat

Global/human-induced climate change (Periodic Report, 2003). Floods, cyclones, drought and increase in temperatures have already caused problems and are expected to increase.

Potential Threats
Low Concern

Risk management is in place although it is likely that invasive species and pathogens could still arrive into the site given the multi-use functions of the property and the somewhat fragmented disposition of its component parts. Management responses to climate change are difficult, although mitigation by increasing connectivity between the different components could help.

Invasive Non-Native/ Alien Species
High Threat

Other invasive species and pathogens could still be introduced to the site although biosecurity plans are in place.

Temperature extremes
Very High Threat

Potential threats include higher temperatures, Increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations; periods of prolonged drought; a rise in the orographic cloud layer; exacerbation of fire regimes that are inappropriate to maintenance of rainforest species (ANU, 2009).

Protection and management

Protection and management of the component parts appears to be highly to mostly effective. The only question is, given this is a serial property, whether all the component parts are adequately buffered and as connected as possible. If it were possible to continue improving some boundary issues this would confer an even better protection of World Heritage values within the site.

Effective

Protection and management

Legal framework
Highly Effective

Most of the property lies within national park boundaries. National environmental law [The Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999], as well as various state laws (Queensland Nature Conservation Act 1992, and the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 and Environment Planning and Assessment Act 1979], protects the property from threats originating both inside and outside the properties boundaries (Feros, 2009; SoOUV, 2012).

Research
Highly Effective

Each year approximately 200 - 300 scientific and technical studies are undertaken in the area, with a number of new discoveries taking place (SOC, 2003).

Monitoring
Effective

There is currently no overall coordinated monitoring programme for the site, however there are a number of reserve-specific projects being undertaken which provide baseline and trend data. These projects are undertaken to the limit of available resources, often guided by political priorities. Examples of these include vegetation mapping; visitation indicators; species specific and flora/fauna communities projects; threatening processes – particularly fire, weeds and pest species; and agencies own integrated ‘state of the park’ reporting. Monitoring has been identified as a management objective in the Strategic Overview (SOC, 2003). A monitoring strategy has been published (Chester & Bushnell, 2005).

Tourism and visitation management
Highly Effective

Excellent tourism management and interpretation (Periodic Reporting, 2003).

Education and interpretation programs
Highly Effective

Excellent tourism management and interpretation (Periodic Reporting, 2003).

Sustainable use
Data Deficient

Data deficient. Unlikely that sustainable use is allowed within the site, as the vast majority lies within National Parks, although there may be some.

Staff training and development
Data Deficient

Data deficient.

Sustainable finance
Effective

Funding is largely the responsibility of the State management agencies. However, funding has been made available by the Australian Government to assist with additional management and presentation activities. The Australian Government has also funded the position of the Gondwana Rainforests Executive Officer and provided funding support for the Advisory Committees since 1994 (Feros, 2009). Funding is provided by State and Commonwealth agencies to carry out priority issues, but some threatening processes are by necessity not able to be adequately addressed. Some examples include weed and pest control, rehabilitation of degraded areas and systematic monitoring and research (SOC, 2003).

Boundaries
Some Concern

Since inscription there have been major tenure changes, meaning most flora reserves that were previously managed by State Forests of New South Wales were revoked and incorporated into new or existing national parks and nature reserves managed by the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service. In Queensland, all State Forests in the property have been converted to Forest Reserve as a holding tenure, prior to being added to the protected area estate. Whilst the boundaries of the World Heritage Property have not changed, the boundaries of some of the reserves have been extended. This has led to enhanced protection of the property (SOC, 2003). There have also been major expansions in the National Park estate in both New South Wales and Queensland, including significant additional areas of rainforest that could be added to the property in the future (Feros, 2009). However, in some areas it would seem that additional buffer zones and connectivity would enhance long-term protection.

Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations
Effective

The Committee decisions for this site were related to the extension of the property, change of its name and recently to the adoption of Retrospective Statement of Outstanding Universal Value. No other decisions or recommendations which would require implementation were adopted.

Management effectiveness
Highly Effective

Management effectiveness said to be good (Periodic Report, 2003). Although not aimed at the site, management effectiveness for some of the component parts can be monitored, at least for New South Wales, in the State of the Parks Report (DEC, 2004). A monitoring system for the site has been developed (Chester & Bushnell, 2005).

Management system (for transboundary/serial properties, integrated management system should also be described/evaluated)
Effective

Management plans exist for most of the component parts, and are in draft or planned for the others. A Strategic Overview for Management aimed at guiding cooperative management was published in 2000 and is currently under review (SoOUV, 2012).

Integration into regional and national planning systems (including sea/landscape connectivity)
Highly Effective

Good (Periodic Report, 2003).

Relationships with local people (including stakeholder relationships, participatory management, rights, and access to benefits and equity)
Data Deficient

Data deficient

Overall assessment of protection and management

Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site
Data Deficient

More information is required to understand protection and management outside the site. In many of the reserves it appears that they are protected by additional protected areas, but not all of them.

Overall assessment of protection and management
Effective

Protection and management of the component parts appears to be highly to mostly effective. The only question is, given this is a serial property, whether all the component parts are adequately buffered and as connected as possible. If it were possible to continue improving some boundary issues this would confer an even better protection of World Heritage values within the site.

Best Practice Examples

Additional Information

Key Conservation Issues

Issues

Climate change
Global

Climate change has already been identified as a threatening cause, debatably increasing the strength and frequency of cyclones, flooding, drought, and temperature rise leading to uncontrolled wildfires.

Pathogens
Local

Chytrid disease may be just one of several reasons for the decline in amphibian populations, and other pathogens such as Phytophthora, Bell Miner Disease and the newly introduced Myrtle Rust disease have the potential to devastate the biodiversity values of the site very quickly.

Invasive species
Local

Invasive animals displace, predate, out-compete and destabilise habitat of native wildlife, and invasive plants, apart from predation, do much the same. Intensive management to prevent and combat invasive species is in place but continued effort and new tools and methods are required.

Fire
Local

Management of the property is principally aimed at protecting rainforests and associated fauna, but other habitats and species that require fire also occur in the property. While the risk of uncontrolled wildfire needs to be reduced, planned fire regimes that maintain all biodiversity values is necessary. Fire risks will probably increase with climate change.

Fragmentation and incompatible land-use off-site
Regional

Since the property is made up of 41 component parts and some of these parts are very small, outside influences are greater than if the property covered just one large land area. Incompatible land-use outside the property could come from forestry, mining or farming operations opening up pathways for invasive species and pathogens or contaminating water within the property from silt and run-off or neighbouring land-fills.

Increasing population
Local

Increasing population pressure in the areas surrounding the different component parts are going to bring increased conflict in land use as well as increased tourist pressure.

Benefits

Knowledge

The site is a natural laboratory for a wide range of scientific questions generating new knowledge and for providing education to the public

Environmental Services

Many of the component parts provide major environmental services in carbon sequestration, controlling erosion and conserving and maintaining water quality.

Cultural and Spiritual Values

Many of the component parts conserve historical, cultural and spiritual values.

Cultural and Spiritual Values

The larger component parts provide wilderness and landscape values.

Health and recreation

The site is a major destination for a large number of tourists.

Nature conservation values

Park management, interpretation, education and tourism all generate jobs.

Nature conservation values

The property is the last refuge for an enormous amount of endemic biodiversity and provides the opportunity for ongoing evolution.

Projects

Active Conservation Projects

N0 Organization/ individuals Brief description of Active Projects Contact Details
1 Govt of Australia “Caring for our Country” projects Weed management programs to reduce the impact of priority weeds in priority locations; Management of Bell Miner Associated Dieback (BMAD); Monitoring of amphibian chytrid fungus; Sampling for the pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi, and the preparation of a management plan; Threatened species monitoring for the Hastings river mouse and the spotted-tailed quoll; A regional assessment of climate change impacts and the development of appropriate actions for threat mitigation; Monitoring of endemic high mountain dwelling frog species in relation to climate change; An assessment of fire impacts on rainforest. http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/protectedareas/GondwanaWorldHeritageArea.htm
2 Australia Heritage (Govt of Australia) Gondwana Rainforests of Australia. Total funding 2009-2013: $2 361 963 Funding will be provided over four years to target specific threats across the World Heritage area to protect sites from climate-change induced habitat modification, invasion of pest species including weeds and pathogens and inappropriate recreation and tourism activities. http://www.heritageaustralia.com.au/news.php?id=191
3 Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney Rainforest Seed Project. http://www.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/support/Fundraising_projects/Rainforest_seed_project
4 Friends of Gondwana Forest Cave Creek Rainforest Rehabilitation Scheme (Springbrook NP) http://gondwanarainforest.org/next
5 Australian Rainforest Conservation Society Springbrook Rainforest Restoration Project (and others) http://www.nprsr.qld.gov.au/parks/springbrook/restoration/arcs.html
6 Wild Mob Volunteers for Wilderness Conservation Lamington National Park Conservation Project http://www.wildmob.org/projects/lamington-national-park-conservation-project

Compilation of potential project needs

N.O0 Organization/ individuals Brief description of Active Projects Contact Details
Data is not available
Rn0 References
1 DECC (2007) Draft Recovery Plan for the Barrington Tops Broad-toothed Rat Endangered Population. Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Sydney.
2 Nomination (1984). Nomination of New South Wales Rainforests. Govt of Australia.
3 DERC (2011). Lamington National Park Management Plan 2011. Planning Services Unit, Department of Environment and Resource Management, Queensland.
4 Nomination (1992). Nomination of the Central Rainforests of Eastern Australia. Govt. of Australia.
5 IUCN (1992). Evaluation of the Central Rainforests of Eastern Australia. IUCN.
6 SOC (2003). Report on the State of Conservation of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves of Australia. Australian National Periodic Report.
7 Hunter, R.J. (2004). World Heritage and associative natural values of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves of Australia. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.(first published 2003, revised 2004).
8 DEC (Department of Environment and Conservation) (2006). NSW Threat Abatement Plan –Invasion of native plant communities by Chrysanthemoides monilifera (bitou bush and boneseed). Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW), Hurstville.
9 PWS (1998). Dorrigo National Park Plan of Management. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/pomfinaldorrigo.pdf
10 PWS (2005) Gibraltar Range Group of Parks (Incorporating Barool, Capoompeta, Gibraltar Range, Nymboida and Washpool National Parks and Nymboida and Washpool State Conservation Areas) Plan of Management. National Parks and Wildlife Service Department of Environment and Conservation, New South Wales. http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/PoMGibraltarRange.pdf
11 Lunney, D. & McKenzie, N. (2008). Macropus parma. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. . Downloaded on 3 October 2012.
12 Garnett, S.T. & Crowley, G.M. (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.
13 BirdLife International (2012). Species factsheets: Menura alberti ; Atrichornis rufescens; . Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/10/2012
14 IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. . Downloaded on 07 October 2012.
15 Ehmann, H. (1997) Threatened frogs of New South Wales: Habitats, status and conservation. Frog and Tadpole Study Group of NSW, Sydney.
16 ISC (2011). Environmental effects of Myrtle Rust Backgrounder. Invasive Species Council. www. Invasives.org.au
17 DPWHA (2009). Littoral Rainforest and Coastal Vine Thickets of Eastern Australia: A nationally threatened ecological community. EPBC Policy Statement 3.9 Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts.
18 Chester, G. & Bushnell, S. (2005) Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves of Australia: A monitoring strategy. Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and Management, Cairns. 156 pp.
19 Horton, B.M. (2012). Mitigating the effects of forest eucalypt dieback associated with psyllids and bell miners in World Heritage Areas. Australasian Plant Conservation 20(4): 11-13.
20 ANU (Australian National University) (2009). Implications of climate change for Australia’s World Heritage properties: A preliminary assessment. A report to the Department of Climate Change and the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts by the Fenner School of Environment and Society, the Australian National University. 207 pp.
21 Feros, K. (2009). Case Study 1: Gondwana Rainforests of Australia. In: Engels, B. (ed.) Serial Natural World Heritage Properties – Challenges for Nomination and Management. Proceedings of a workshop. BfN, Germany.
22 DEC (2004). State of the Parks 2004. Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW), Sydney.
23 Sunshine Coast Council (2010). Sunshine Coast Biodiversity Strategy 2010-2020.
24 Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A.A. and Morris, K. (1996). Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/marsupials/index.html accessed on 7 October, 2012.
25 DECC (2005) Recovery Plan for the Hastings River Mouse (Pseudomys oralis). Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW), Hurstville.
26 Menkhorst, P., Dickman, C., Denny, M., Aplin, K., Lunney, D. & Ellis, M. (2008). Pseudomys oralis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. . Downloaded on 3 October 2012.
27 ACT (2005). Spotted-tailed Quoll (Dasuyurus maculatus)—a vulnerable species. Action Plan No. 30. Environment ACT Government, Canberra.
28 Berger, L., Speare, R., Daszak, P., Green, D.E., Cunningham, A.A., Goggin, C.L., Slocombe, R., Ragan, M.A., Hyatt, A.D., McDonald, K.R., Hines, H.B., Lips, K.R., Marantelli, G. & Parkes, H. (1998). Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rainforests of Australia and Central America, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95: 9031–9036.
29 Hines, H.B. and the South-east Queensland Threatened Frogs Recovery Team (2002). Recovery plan for stream frogs of south-east Queensland 2001–2005. Report to Environment Australia, Canberra, Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Brisbane.
30 Hines, H.B., Mahony, M. & McDonald, K. (1999). An assessment of frog declines in wet subtropical Australia, in A. Campbell (ed.). Declines and disappearances of Australian frogs. Environment Australia, Canberra: 44–63.
31 Hines, H.B. & McDonald, K. (2000). Declining frogs of subtropical Australia’s rainforests, declining frogs of Australia’s rainforests. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service.
32 Hines, H.B., Meyer, E., Newell, D., Clarke, J., & Hero, J.-M. (2004). Mixophyes fleayi. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. . Downloaded on 07 October 2012.
33 Hines, H.B., Newell, D., Clarke, J., Hero, J.-M. & Meyer, E. (2004). Mixophyes iteratus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. . Downloaded on 07 October 2012.
34 Gillespie, G., Robertson, P., Hines, H.B, Lemckert, F. & Hero, J.-M. (2004). Mixophyes balbus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. . Downloaded on 07 October 2012
35 Hero, J.-M., Gillespie, G., Lemckert, F., Robertson, P. & Littlejohn, M. (2004). Litoria booroolongensis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. . Downloaded on 07 October 2012.
36 Hunter, D. & Gillespie, G.R. (2011). National Recovery Plan for the Stuttering Frog Mixophyes balbus. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne.
37 OEH (2012). National Recovery Plan for Booroolong Frog (Litoria booroolongensis). Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW), Hurstville.
38 DEH (2006). Threat abatement plan: Infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus rusulting in chytridiomycosis. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australia.

Site Description

This site, comprising several protected areas, is situated predominantly along the Great Escarpment on Australia’s east coast. The outstanding geological features displayed around shield volcanic craters and the high number of rare and threatened rainforest species are of international significance for science and conservation.

ⓒ UNESCO