Atlantic Forest Southeast Reserves
Brazil, Inscribed in  1999
Criteria : vii, ix, x

Atlantic Forest Southeast Reserves

Learn more about the state of conservation of this natural World Heritage site by scrolling down to read assessment summaries.More details can be found by navigating to the "Full references" tab, where conservation issues, benefits and projects are cited alongside values, threats, and protection and management.Sources of information are listed under references.

Finalised on 15 Sep 2014
Conservation Outlook

Significant Concern

Along with two other distinct properties encompassing the most valuable remnant of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Iguaçu National Park) and a cluster of the key fragments of the Northeastern Atlantic Forest (Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves), respectively, this serial property is a most encouraging response to the fate of the biome and recognition of its global importance. The establishment of protected areas within the remaining Atlantic Forest was an important step to prevent the irreversible loss of a unique and exceptionally diverse forest ecosystem altogether. However, many of the conservation units that make up the property are very small and vulnerable to outside influences and no broad-scale information about the spatial distribution of Atlantic Forest remnants exist that could guide conservation actions, especially when systematic biodiversity data are not available. However, there are important continuous blocks including Serra do Mar, Carlos Botelho and Intervales which urgently require increased protection to ensure long-term conservation of the area and remaining connectivity. Much of the implementation, in particular as regards coordination of efforts between actors and stakeholders, remains to be consolidated. Urgent action seems needed to improve integrity and mitigate the existing threats, including ongoing illegal resource extraction and land use. Additional concerns refer specifically to human disturbance in the sensitive coastal areas. In the buffer zone agriculture, ranching, plantation forestry, infrastructure development and mining add up to put increasing pressure on the property. If predicated climate change is added to the factors, considerable erosion of important conservation values seems highly likely in the absence of major responses.

Values

High Concern Trend: Deteriorating
Current state and Trend of values
High Concern

The establishment of protected areas in this crucial area of the remaining Atlantic Forest halted a longstanding process of deforestation and forest degradation just in time to prevent the irreversible loss of a unique and exceptionally diverse forest ecosystem altogether. The establishment as such, however, will not ensure the long-term maintenance. Further investments in management and coordination are needed in addition to more environmentally-friendly land use in the broader landscape, including forest restoration.

Threats

Very High Threat
Overall Threats
Very High Threat

The most significant current threats for the property’s conservation units are the ecological and biological isolation of the various components and associated with it edge effect, ongoing illegal resource extraction and land use. Additional concerns refer specifically to human disturbance in the sensitive coastal areas. In the buffer zone agriculture, ranching, plantation forestry, infrastructure development and mining add up to put increasing pressure on the property. If predicated climate change is added to the factors, considerable erosion of important conservation values seems highly likely in the absence of major responses.

Protection and Management

Some Concern
Overall Protection and management
Some Concern

The establishment of protected areas within the remaining Atlantic Forest was an important step to prevent the irreversible loss of a unique and exceptionally diverse forest ecosystem altogether. However, many of the conservation units that make up the property are very small and vulnerable to outside influences and no broad-scale information about the spatial distribution of Atlantic Forest remnants exist that could guide conservation actions, especially when systematic biodiversity data are not available (Ribeiro et al. 2009). However, there are important continuous blocks including Serra do Mar, Carlos Botelho and Intervales which urgently require increased protection to ensure long-term conservation of the area and remaining connectivity (IUCN Consultation, 2014). Much of the implementation, in particular as regards coordination of efforts between actors and stakeholders, remains to be consolidated. Urgent action seems needed to improve integrity and resilience given the increasingly unfavorable conditions in the wider landscape.

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Assessment Information
Finalised on 15 Sep 2014

Values

The establishment of protected areas in this crucial area of the remaining Atlantic Forest halted a longstanding process of deforestation and forest degradation just in time to prevent the irreversible loss of a unique and exceptionally diverse forest ecosystem altogether. The establishment as such, however, will not ensure the long-term maintenance. Further investments in management and coordination are needed in addition to more environmentally-friendly land use in the broader landscape, including forest restoration.

High Concern

World Heritage Values
High Concern Trend: Deteriorating

High species diversity
High Concern Deteriorating

More than 450 woody species per hectare have been recorded in some areas of the site, among the highest values recorded anywhere. There is a very diverse fauna with numerous species of conservation interest. There are over 200 species of mammals, with over 60 species of bats and several species of primates, some of which are endangered, such as the southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides), the largest primate of the Americas, and the black-faced lion tamarin, L. caissara, first described in 1990, which is endemic to the region. Over 50 fish species are found in the inland waters and many more in the marine area. About 100 species of amphibians are found in the Paraná State alone. The avifauna is also very diverse with 350 recorded species, including the red-tailed parrot and the scarlet ibis (draft SOUV, 2011; IUCN Consultation, 2014).

Highly diverse forest region
Critical Deteriorating

Partially isolated, the Atlantic Forest has historically evolved into a highly diverse forest region. As a consequence of the high diversity of ecosystems (from mountainous to coastal and marine) represented in the area coupled by the relative isolation of this biome during millennia, its degree of endemism is extraordinarily high. It is estimated that 53% of the tree species are and 77% of other plants are endemic to this biome. (Fernandes, 2003). Current knowledge indicates that this complex biome contains a species diversity higher than most of the Amazon forests (Colombo and Joly, 2010). As one of the most important conservation mosaics of the Atlantic Forest, the property is of key importance for the conservation of the entire terrestrial biome, including its interlinkages with coastal and marine ecosystems nearby (draft SOUV, 2011).

Exceptional natural beauty
Low Concern Stable

The Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves World Heritage site is located in the states of Paraná and São Paulo. It contains some of the best and largest examples of Atlantic forest in Brazil. The 25 protected areas that make up this site (some 470,000 ha in total) display the biological wealth and beauty of the last and highly threatened remaining Atlantic forests that cover densely forested mountains with hundreds waterfalls and over 300 splendid caves down to wetlands, dunes, estuaries, marshes and mangroves, as well as numerous bays and coastal islands, the area comprises a very diverse natural environment of great scenic beauty. Two of the caves are specially interesting: Casa de Pedra with the largest opening in the world and Santana, with a beautiful ornamentation (draft SoOUV, 2011; IUCN Consultation, 2014).

Other Biodiversity values
NA Trend: NA

Other international designations
NA Trend: NA

Threats

The most significant current threats for the property’s conservation units are the ecological and biological isolation of the various components and associated with it edge effect, ongoing illegal resource extraction and land use. Additional concerns refer specifically to human disturbance in the sensitive coastal areas. In the buffer zone agriculture, ranching, plantation forestry, infrastructure development and mining add up to put increasing pressure on the property. If predicated climate change is added to the factors, considerable erosion of important conservation values seems highly likely in the absence of major responses.

Very High Threat

Current Threats
Very High Threat

The most significant current threats for the property’s conservation units are the ecological and biological isolation of the various components, ongoing illegal resource extraction and land use. Additional concerns refer specifically to human disturbance in the sensitive coastal areas (UNEP/WCMC). In the buffer zone, agriculture, ranching, plantation forestry, infrastructure development and mining add up to put increasing pressure on the property.

Other
Very High Threat

Many of the conservation units that make up the property are very small and vulnerable to outside influences. The isolation is being exacerbated by human interventions that further degrade and fragment habitats, and by climate change and will result in the loss of biodiversity over time (Birdlife International, 2012; UNEP-WCMC, 2011; WWF, n.d., Perry, 2011). A study of the entire Atlantic Forest showed that “more than 80% of the fragments are <50 ha, almost half the remaining forest is <100 m from its edges, the average distance between fragments is large (1440 m), and nature reserves protect only 9% of the remaining forest and 1% of the original forest (Riberiro et al. 2009).

Crop production
Very High Threat

Poaching, timber extraction, non-timber forest products, palm harvest, subsistence agriculture, and commercial fishing are significant threats for the conservation units, causing further fragmentation of habitats, and degrading wildlife populations (Birdlife International, 2012; UNEP-WCMC, 2011; Parks watch, 2002; WWF, n.d.).

Poaching
Very High Threat

Poaching, timber extraction, non-timber forest products, palm harvest, subsistence agriculture, and commercial fishing are significant threats for the conservation units, causing further fragmentation of habitats, and degrading wildlife populations (Birdlife International, 2012; UNEP-WCMC, 2011; Parks watch, 2002; WWF, n.d.).

Logging/ Wood Harvesting
Very High Threat

Poaching, timber extraction, non-timber forest products, palm harvest, subsistence agriculture, and commercial fishing are significant threats for the conservation units, causing further fragmentation of habitats, and degrading wildlife populations (Birdlife International, 2012; UNEP-WCMC, 2011; Parks watch, 2002; WWF, n.d.).

Tourism/ visitors/ recreation
High Threat

Some areas experienced a tourism boom in late 90s that threatened both their environment and their native communities with rapid unregulated development. Restrictions on developments and day limits for visitors have been introduced since then (http://www.geographical.co.uk/Magazine/Brazil_Nov07.html)

Tourism/ Recreation Areas
Very High Threat

Infrastructure in the buffer zone such as settlements, mining, roads, tourism facilities, water impoundment, and drainages degrade and fragment natural habitats, impede habitat restoration, contribute to pollution and sedimentation, and impact wildlife (BirdLife International, 2012; UNEP-WCMC, 2011; Parkswatch, 2002; WWF, n.d.).

Housing/ Urban Areas
Very High Threat

Infrastructure in the buffer zone such as settlements, mining, roads, tourism facilities, water impoundment, and drainages degrade and fragment natural habitats, impede habitat restoration, contribute to pollution and sedimentation, and impact wildlife (BirdLife International, 2012; UNEP-WCMC, 2011; Parkswatch, 2002; WWF, n.d.).

Roads/ Railroads
Very High Threat

Infrastructure in the buffer zone such as settlements, mining, roads, tourism facilities, water impoundment, and drainages degrade and fragment natural habitats, impede habitat restoration, contribute to pollution and sedimentation, and impact wildlife (BirdLife International, 2012; UNEP-WCMC, 2011; Parkswatch, 2002; WWF, n.d.).

Potential Threats
Low Concern

Climate change is a significant threat that is expected to accelerate the loss of biodiversity in the property.

Temperature extremes
High Threat

Climate change is already causing extreme weather events, which are projected to increase in frequency and severity in the future together with increased temperatures and rainfall, and sea-level rise. The property is rated as being among the top 20 natural World Heritage sites to be impacted by climate change (Nobrel, 2012; Perry, 2011). General result shows not only a significant reduction in the potential distribution of the species studied but also that the Atlantic Forest may be restricted to a more southern position in Brazil (Colombo and Joly, 2010). Other studies project that species in upper elevations in the Atlantic Forest are at risk from climate change as restriction to mobility towards less warm higher elevations will not be possible (Sodhi and Ehrlich, 2010). A study on climate change scenarios concerning sugarcane for the production of ethanol in Brazil until 2035 predict a high pressure on biodiversity mainly in Atlantic Forest biomes, “with 52.1% of the cases, aggravating the situation of an already highly degraded ecosystem, identified among the 25 world hotspots” (Margulis and Burke, 2011). This will increase pressure in conservation units.

Protection and management

The establishment of protected areas within the remaining Atlantic Forest was an important step to prevent the irreversible loss of a unique and exceptionally diverse forest ecosystem altogether. However, many of the conservation units that make up the property are very small and vulnerable to outside influences and no broad-scale information about the spatial distribution of Atlantic Forest remnants exist that could guide conservation actions, especially when systematic biodiversity data are not available (Ribeiro et al. 2009). However, there are important continuous blocks including Serra do Mar, Carlos Botelho and Intervales which urgently require increased protection to ensure long-term conservation of the area and remaining connectivity (IUCN Consultation, 2014). Much of the implementation, in particular as regards coordination of efforts between actors and stakeholders, remains to be consolidated. Urgent action seems needed to improve integrity and resilience given the increasingly unfavorable conditions in the wider landscape.

Some Concern

Protection and management

Research
Effective

There 6 Ecological Stations in the property have research facilities. Their great value is in the preservation of genetic resources and good samples of Atlantic forest biodiversity, for research into speciation and into the future of sustainable exploitation of indigenous species, especially for their medical uses (UNEP-WCMC, 2011; Organização Roberta Guagliardi, 2009). Significant research is funded by a number of foundations, such as Boticario Fundation, as well as various universities (IUCN Consultation, 2014).

Monitoring
Some Concern

Despite monitoring being carried out in many of the property's components, an overall monitoring system for the property remains absent. Overall, for the Atlantic Forest Biome “there is very limited direct observation, let alone geo-referenced monitoring data, on the states, trends and functions of ecosystem services and biodiversity indicators. Thus, decision - makers lack fundamental information to guide them” (IADB, 2009)

Tourism and visitation management
Effective

When the property was inscribed, it was reported that he entire area was visited by around 1.3 million people in 1997. However, forest conservation is the paramount aim of the reserves, so that visitation to many of the sites is restricted to certain areas or trails, as at the research stations. These latter do encourage ecotourism, ecological researchers and environmental education. However, there are also 16 visitors’ centers in all, 7 being in the four Paranapiacaba reserves. The oldest, Alto Ribeira State Park, long visited for its caves, averaged 26,850 visitors a year between 1996 and 1998. It has three visitor centers with lodging facilities, auditorium and tourist routes. Thirty caves are opened to visitors, but cave excursions are made with experienced local guides. Many other caves are restricted to registered speleologists. Carlos Botelho and Intervale State Parks are also well equipped, have information centers with visitor facilities and good trails but access is otherwise limited. Camping is allowed on sites near visitor centers (UNEP-WCMC, 2011; Organização Roberta Guagliardi, 2009). Overall, tourism and its impacts are localized; however, their concentration in some areas might be too high and these areas become over-utilized (IUCN Consultation, 2014).

Education and interpretation programs
Effective

Past projects have given significant emphasis to environmental education, and a number of programs have been developed (WDPA, 2011; Organização Roberta Guagliardi, 2009).

Sustainable use
Some Concern

Conservation and research are the main uses of the conservation units that make up the property, and in some units, tourism and recreation are encouraged. In general, research activities are being carried out in an adequate and sustainable manner; however, tourism and recreation are very poorly controlled in some areas and and might become a source of new risks (Organização Roberta Guagliardi, 2009; IUCN Consultation, 2014).

Staff training and development
Serious Concern

The severe staff shortages are of serious concern. Much higher levels of staffing are needed to ensure adequate management (UNEP/WCMC, 2011; IUCN Consultation, 2014).

Sustainable finance
Some Concern

Conservation of the Atlantic Forest is considered a very high conservation priority at the state, national, and global level, and over the years a large number of projects have been financed by multilateral and bilateral organizations, national and state governments, and international and national NGOs and foundations over the years to consolidate management (UNEP-WCMC, 2011; Organização Roberta Guagliardi, 2009; IUCN, 1999; de Oliveira, 1998). Currently (2010-2013), FUNBIO, a Brazilian conservation trust fund, has in place the Atlantic Forest Conservation Fund, which provides funding on a competitive basis for projects (FUNBIO, 2012). Significant support was provided by the Brazilian Foundation Boticario both in research and in situ conservation (IUCN Consultation, 2014).

Boundaries
Serious Concern

Many of the conservation units that make up the property are very small and vulnerable to outside influences.

Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations
Some Concern

In its inscription decision, the Committee recommended that the State Party "should be encouraged to restore natural conditions in the Serra do Mar State Park, which potentially could be incorporated in the site". No action has been reported to this effect.

Management effectiveness
Some Concern

According to the ICMBio and WWF Brazil (2012) management effectiveness evaluations, some of the conservation units within the WHS had a rather low level of management effectiveness, for example, the Ecological Station Guaraqueçaba, while others, for example Superagui National Park scored high. The Ecological Station obtained a general index of 11% during the 2010 exercise which was much lower than the 2005-2006 result of 35%. Superagui National Park’s only low score is for financial resources and its general index was 76% in 2010 and 38% for 2005-06. The overall key challenge, however, is the poor coordination of management across the entire serial property.

Management system (for transboundary/serial properties, integrated management system should also be described/evaluated)
Serious Concern

Management of the property is divided among federal and the two concerned state protected area authorities, and the administration of the private reserve. The management of each conservation unit is guided by a management plan, though several are outdated and their implementation is limited by insufficient human and financial resources. (UNEP-WCMC, 2011; Organização Roberta Guagliardi. 2009; IUCN, 1999; de Oliveira, 1998; IUCN Consultation, 2014). For example, the environmental management plan for the Guaraqueçaba Ecological Station is the same as for the environmental protection area, with the same name, dating from 1995 (ICMBio and WWF-Brazil ,2012). The key concern is the coordination of management among the many conservation units that make up the property (UNEP-WCMC, 2011). More recently, progress has been made in the further development of the "conservation mosaic”, but this is has not been translated into the formal design of the World Heritage property as of yet.

Integration into regional and national planning systems (including sea/landscape connectivity)
Serious Concern

The establishment of the individual protected areas and their consideration as one coherent property represents an adequate attempt to increase the scale of conservation intervention. The fundamental challenge to promote more sustainable land and resource use in the broader landscape remains.

Legal framework
Some Concern

The legal framework for the property has been developed by a mosaic of 10 conservation units established by federal decree (1 National Park, 1 Ecological Station, 3 Wildlife Zones, 3 Environmental Protection Areas); 11 conservation units in Sao Paulo State established by state decree ( 6 State Parks, 3 Ecological Station, 1 Wildlife Zone, 1 Environmental Protection Area); 8 conservation units in Parana State established by state decree (5 State Parks, 1 Ecological Station, and 1 Environmental Protection Areas); and 1 Private Natural Heritage Reserve. Law enforcement is carried out by Forest and Environmental Police (UNEP-WCMC, 2011). However, federal and state budgets for protected areas is limited and staff numbers and equipment are insufficient to ensure effective law enforcement (IUCN Consultation, 2014).

Relationships with local people (including stakeholder relationships, participatory management, rights, and access to benefits and equity)
Some Concern

In the past, relationships with local people have been strained at times. The management units have set up Advisory Councils to better involve stakeholders in the management (UNEP-WCMC, 2011; WDPA, 2011; Organização Roberta Guagliardi. 2009; IUCN, 1999; de Oliveira, 1998).

Overall assessment of protection and management

Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site
Serious Concern

At this point in time, the establishment of buffer zones appears to reflect intentions rather than tangible conservation action. While an important first step, consolidation is needed to prevent decreasing overall landscape integrity and connectivity.

Overall assessment of protection and management
Some Concern

The establishment of protected areas within the remaining Atlantic Forest was an important step to prevent the irreversible loss of a unique and exceptionally diverse forest ecosystem altogether. However, many of the conservation units that make up the property are very small and vulnerable to outside influences and no broad-scale information about the spatial distribution of Atlantic Forest remnants exist that could guide conservation actions, especially when systematic biodiversity data are not available (Ribeiro et al. 2009). However, there are important continuous blocks including Serra do Mar, Carlos Botelho and Intervales which urgently require increased protection to ensure long-term conservation of the area and remaining connectivity (IUCN Consultation, 2014). Much of the implementation, in particular as regards coordination of efforts between actors and stakeholders, remains to be consolidated. Urgent action seems needed to improve integrity and resilience given the increasingly unfavorable conditions in the wider landscape.

Best Practice Examples

Additional Information

Key Conservation Issues

Issues

Agriculture, ranching, mining, and forest plantations in the buffer zone.
Local

Agriculture, ranching, mining, and forest plantations in the buffer zone degrade and fragment natural habitats, disturb and displace wildlife, and impede restoration of natural habitats (Birdlife International, 2012; UNEP-WCMC, 2011; Parkswatch 2002; WWF, n.d.).

Infrastructure in the buffer zone
Local

Infrastructure in the buffer zone such as settlements, mining, roads, tourist facilities, water impoundment, and drainages degrade and fragment natural habitats, impede habitat restoration, contribute to pollution and sedimentation, and impact wildlife (Birdlife International, 2012; UNEP-WCMC, 2011; Parkswatch, 2002; WWF, n.d.).

Illegal extraction of natural resources
Local

Poaching, timber extraction, non-timber forest products, palm harvest (for palm hearts), and inadequate commercial fishing are significant threats for the conservation units, causing further fragmentation and degradation of habitats and populations (Birdlife International, 2012; UNEP-WCMC, 2011; Parkswatch, 2002; WWF, n.d.).

Ecological and biological isolation
National

Many of the conservation units that make up the property are very small and vulnerable to outside influences. (BirdLife International, 2012; UNEP-WCMC, 2011; WWF, n.d., Perry, 2011). However, there is an important continuous block including Serra do Mar, Carlos Botelho and Intervales which urgently requires increased protection to ensure long-term conservation of the area and remaining connectivity (IUCN Consultation, 2014).

Benefits

Nature conservation values

Inscription of the property as a World Heritage Site is evidence of the national and international appreciation of the area's conservation values and benefits.

Knowledge

The numerous endemic organisms are unique and could harbor highly valuable substances.

Knowledge

As the last remnants of the southern Atlantic Forest, the property is of great value for researchers as it provides an opportunity to study the great biodiversity of this region in the last unaltered natural expressions of the biome.

Health and recreation

The property is located in the vicinity of Sao Paulo, South America's largest city and metropolitan area suggesting a touristic potential in attractive areas, in particular near the coast.

Projects

Active Conservation Projects

N0 Organization/ individuals Brief description of Active Projects Contact Details
1 TNC In 2008, TNC launched a campaign to restore one billion native trees to the Atlantic Forest (note: not necessary in the Property) - See more at: http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/southamerica/brazil/placesweprotect/atlantic-forest.xml#sthash.va66KAIJ.dpuf http://adopt.nature.org/plantabillion/brazil/
2 FUNBIO Atlantic Forest Conservation Fund which aims to contribute to the protection, sustainable management and recovery of the Atlantic Forest. The fund seeks to support the identification of stakeholders and the establishment of Conservation Units (CUs) and Private Natural Heritage Reserves (RPPNs); stimulate projects on Payments for Environmental Services (PES) and the creation of a system of monitoring for the biome. The Project is part of the International Initiative for Climate Protection (ICI) of the Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety of Germany (BMU), which provides financial support through KfW Entwicklungsbank (Development Branch of the German Reconstruction Bank), through FUNBIO. www.funbio.org.br
3 SOS Mata Atlantica Several projects in the Atlantic Forest Biome. http://www.sosma.org.br/quem-somos/
4 GEF-IADB-Brazil’s gov. Brazil: Recovery and protection of climate and biodiversity services in the Paraiba do Su l basin of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. The multifocal area project expects to contribute in the protection and restoration of ecosystem services of global importance in the Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (IADB, 2009).
5 IADB Loan Environmental and Social Recovery of Serra do Mar and Marine Atlantic Forest Mosaics (including Jureia Itatins Ecological station. Overall the project expects to improve infrastructure and existing conservation units, monitoring, reducing impacts from population, etc.) (IADB, 2009)

Compilation of potential project needs

N.O0 Organization/ individuals Brief description of Active Projects Contact Details
Data is not available
Rn0 References
1 Milton Cezar Ribeiro, M.C., J.P. Metzgera,, A.C. Martensena, F.J. Ponzonib, and M.M. Hirotac. 2009. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest: How much is left, and how is the remaining forest distributed? Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation. Volume 142, Issue 6, June 2009, Pages 1141–1153
2 Colombo, A.F. and C.A. Joly. 2010. Brazilian Atlantic Forest lato sensu: the most ancient Brazilian forest, and a biodiversity hotspot, is highly threatened by climate change.
3 IEG. 2013. Brazil Country Program Evaluation FY04-11. https://ieg.worldbankgroup.org/Data/reports/chapters/brazil_cpe_chap3.pdf
4 http://siscom.ibama.gov.br/monitorabiomas/mataatlantica/index.htm (Accessed March 2014)
5 IADB. 2009. PIF: Brazil: Recovery and protection of climate and biodiversity services in the Paraiba do Sul basin of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. GEF Funded Project.
6 Juréia-Itatins ecological station. Botany: http://botany.si.edu/projects/cpd/sa/sa17.htm (Accessed March 2014)
7 MMA, IBAMA. 2012. Monitoramento do desmatamento nos biomas brasileiros por satélite acordo de cooperação técnica mma/ibama monitoramento do bioma mata atlântica 2008 a 2009
8 Margulis, S and C. Burke Schmidt Dubeux. 2011. The economics of climate change in Brazil: costs and opportunities – São Paulo: FEA/USP, 84 p.
9 ICMBio and WWF Brasil. 2012. Efetividade de Gestão das unidades de conservação federais Avaliação comparada das aplicações do método Rappam nas unidades de conservação federais, nos ciclos 2005-06 e 2010
10 Conservation Units Management Plans http://www.icmbio.gov.br/portal/biodiversidade/unidades-de-conservacao/planos-de-manejo/lista-plano-de-manejo.html (Accessed March 2014)
11 UNEP/WCMC. 2012. Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves, Brazil. World Heritage Information Sheets. Cambrigde, U.K.
12 Funbio, 2012. AFCoF II – Atlantic Forest Conservation Fund http://www.funbio.org.br/o-que-fazemos/projetos/afcof-ii-atlantic-forest-conservation-fund.
13 Nobrel, Carlos Alfonso. 2012. Vulnerability of Brazilian Mega Cities to Climate Change: The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region. UNDP, International Policy Center for Inclusive Growth.
14 Perry, J. 2011. World Heritage hot spots: A global model identifies the 16 natural heritage properties on the World Heritage List most at risk from climate change. International Journal of Heritage Studies 17 (5), 426-441.
15 Parkswatch, 2002. Park Profiles – Superagui National Park.. http://www.parkswatch.org/parkprofile.php?l=eng&country=bra&park=sunp&page=sum
16 Organização Roberta Guagliardi. 2009. O panorama atual das RPPN federais e dos Estados do Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Minas Gerais e São Paulo. Conservação Internacional-Brasil, Fundação, S.O.S Mata Atlântica, e The Nature Conservancy.
17 BirdLife International. 2012f. Important Bird Areas factsheet: Ilhas Comprida e Cananéia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org
18 BirdLife International. 2012e. Important Bird Areas factsheet: Parque Estadual das Lauráceas e Entorno. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org
19 BirdLife International. 2012d. Important Bird Areas factsheet: Estação Ecológica de Juréia-Itatins. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org
20 BirdLife International. 2012c. Important Bird Areas factsheet: Serra do Marumbi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org
21 BirdLife International . 2012b. Important Bird Areas factsheet: Guaraqueçaba / Jacupiranga / Cananéia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org
22 BirdLife International, 2012a. Endemic Bird Areas, Atlantic Forest Lowlands.
23 de Oliveira Costa, Jose Pedro. 1998. Avaliação da Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlântica .Cinco anos depois de seu reconhecimento pelo Programa MAB-UNESCO.
24 Draft Retrospective Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (SoOUV), 2011.
25 WWF Brasil, n.d. RAPPAM –Implementation of the Rapid Assessment and Priorization of Protected Areas Management by the Forestry Institute and the Forestry Foundation of São Paulo.
26 UNEP-WCMC, 2011. Atlantic Forrest South East Reserves, Sao Paulo and Paraná, Brazil. UNEP-WCMC.

Site Description

The Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves, in the states of Paraná and São Paulo, contain some of the best and most extensive examples of Atlantic forest in Brazil. The 25 protected areas that make up the site (some 470,000 ha in total) display the biological wealth and evolutionary history of the last remaining Atlantic forests. From mountains covered by dense forests, down to wetlands, coastal islands with isolated mountains and dunes, the area comprises a rich natural environment of great scenic beauty.

ⓒ UNESCO