iSimangaliso Wetland Park

South Africa
Inscribed in
1999
Criteria
(vii)
(ix)
(x)

The ongoing fluvial, marine and aeolian processes in the site have produced a variety of landforms, including coral reefs, long sandy beaches, coastal dunes, lake systems, swamps, and extensive reed and papyrus wetlands. The interplay of the park's environmental heterogeneity with major floods and coastal storms and a transitional geographic location between subtropical and tropical Africa has resulted in exceptional species diversity and ongoing speciation. The mosaic of landforms and habitat types creates breathtaking scenic vistas. The site contains critical habitats for a range of species from Africa's marine, wetland and savannah environments.
© UNESCO

Summary

2017 Conservation Outlook

Finalised on
08 Nov 2017
Good with some concerns
Significant progress continues to be made towards enhancing the World Heritage values through restoration projects and management interventions in accordance with a revised Integrated Management Plan. These include the restoration of wetlands, the removal of alien invasive plants, and the improved ecological functioning of the Lake St Lucia system. A coast and land care programme is in place. Relationships with local people have improved. The socio-political context is a challenge, however significant progress has been made to ensure engagement with local people and participation in decision making, as well as economic and other benefits for local communities.

Current state and trend of VALUES

Low Concern
Trend
Improving
All site values show significant improvement, and this has resulted in an increased resilience of this World Heritage site and its Outstanding Universal Value.

Overall THREATS

High Threat
Threats include commercial plantations in the buffer zone and alien invasive plants in- and outside the site, with proven and potential impacts on ground water levels and changes in natural habitats. The positive impacts of the management interventions that have been undertaken to restore habitats, control and mitigate threats and conserve the World Heritage values have been significant in reducing the potential severity of threats to the sustainability of the site.

Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT

Effective
The Management Authority has been effective in its protection and management of the Site. The Integrated Management Plan has been revised for the 2017-2021 period and is currently being implemented. The Site achieved a high METT score and funding for protection and development has been forthcoming. Staff development is ongoing and visitor facilities improvements made. Research and environmental monitoring is ongoing.

Full assessment

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Finalised on
08 Nov 2017

Description of values

Geographically diverse area with superlative vistas along its 220km-long coast

Criterion
(vii)
The site is geographically diverse with superlative scenic vistas along its 220km-long coast, including areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance. From the clear waters of the Indian Ocean, wide undeveloped sandy beaches, forested dune cordon and mosaic of wetlands, grasslands, forests, lakes and savanna, the iSimangaliso Wetland Park contains exceptional aesthetic qualities. (SoOUV, 2011).

The shifting salinity states within Lake St. Lucia

Criterion
(vii)
The shifting salinity states of Lake St. Lucia from low to hyper-saline are linked to wet and dry climatic cycles, and are considered an outstanding natural phenomenon (SoOUV, 2011).

Vivid natural spectacles including nesting turtles and large aggregations of flamingos and other waterfowl

Criterion
(vii)
The spectacle of large numbers of nesting turtles on the beaches and the abundance of dolphins and migration of whales and whale sharks off-shore is an outstanding natural phenomenon. The huge numbers of waterfowl and large breeding colonies of pelicans, storks, herons and terns are impressive and add life to the wild natural landscape of the area (SoOUV, 2011). iSimangaliso is the most important breeding site for waterbirds in South Africa with presence of globally threatened species, range-restricted species, biome restricted species and the site holds more than 20 000 waterbirds on a regular basis (Barnes, 1998).

The combination of fluvial, marine and Aeolian processes which have resulted in a variety of landforms and are on-going to present day

Criterion
(ix)
iSimangaliso is an outstanding example representing significant ongoing ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems, and communities of plants and animals. The combination of fluvial, marine and aeolian processes initiated in the early Pleistocene has resulted in a variety of landforms and continues to the present day. The site’s transitional geographic location between sub-tropical and tropical Africa as well as its coastal setting have resulted in exceptional species diversity. Past speciation events in the Maputuland Centre of Endemism are also on-going and contribute another element to the diversity and interplay of evolutionary processes at work. In the marine component of the site, the sediments being transported by the Agulhas current are trapped by submarine canyons on the continental shelf allowing for remarkably clear waters for the development of coral reefs. The interplay of this environmental heterogeneity is further complicated by major events such as droughts, floods and coastal storms, which are regularly experienced in the site. The site is also of sufficient size and retains most of the key elements that are essential for long-term functioning of the ecosystems. The ecological linkages between the five ecosystems found in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park have been a major attraction for research on the geomorphological and biological processes occurring here (SoOUV, 2011; iSimangaliso research list). The five ecosystems are (i) the marine ecosystem, characterised by a warm sea, the southernmost extension of coral reefs in Africa, submarine canyons and long sandy beaches (ii) the coastal dune system, consisting of linear dunes up to 180 m in height, sub-tropical forests, grassy plains and wetlands (iii) lake systems, consisting of two estuarine-linked lakes (St Lucia and Kosi) and four large freshwater lakes (Sibaya, Ngobozeleni, Bhangazi North and Bhangazi South) (iv) the uMkhuze and uMfolozi swamps, with swamp forest, extensive reed and papyrus wetlands, and (v) the inland western shores, with ancient shoreline terraces and dry savannah woodlands, thickets and sand forests that occur on the higher lying ground between the coastal plain and the Lubombo Mountains.

Significant diversity of African biota

Criterion
(x)
The five interlinked ecosystems found in iSimangaliso provide habitat for a significant diversity of African biota, including a large number of rare, threatened and/or endemic species. iSimangaliso contains some of the most important and significant natural habitats for the in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.
As iSimangaliso is situated on the southernmost extremity of the Mozambique coastal plain, it hosts numerous species reaching the southernmost limit of their range which are, thus, not found elsewhere in South Africa. This adds to the value and importance of this unique area from a South African species conservation perspective. The presence of some of these species north of our borders cannot detract from the importance of conserving the South African populations, as little information is generally available on their conservation status and distribution in other parts of southern and central Africa. iSimangaliso is clearly a critical habitat for a range of species from Africa’s marine, wetland and savannah environments. The species lists for the site are most lengthy in the region and population sizes for most of them are viable. There are also 48 species present that are listed as threatened internationally and 147 on the CITES list. The site is clearly a critical habitat for a range of species from Africa’s marine, wetland and savanna environments. Of the over 6,500 plant and animal species known to occur in the Park, populations of species of conservation importance include 11 species that are endemic to the Park, and 108 species endemic to South Africa, while 467 are listed as threatened in South Africa (SoOUV, 2011).
Ramsar Sites
iSimangaliso contains four Ramsar sites that recognise the ecological functions of wetlands as well as their importance as resources of economic, cultural, scientific and recreational value (i) St. Lucia Lake System (Ramsar Site # 345) (ii) Turtle Beaches/Coral Reefs of Tongaland (Ramsar Site # 344) (iii) Kosi Bay Lake System (Ramsar Site #527), and (iv) Lake Sibaya (Ramsar Site # 528)
Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) / Key Biodiversity Area (KBA)
The entire iSimangaliso Wetland Park is a designated Important Bird and Biodiversity Area (BirdLife, 2015) and also contains Key Biodiversity Areas.
iSimangaliso Wetland Park supports more than 500 bird species and is one of the most important breeding areas for waterbirds in South Africa, with at least 48 species having bred here. Due to the variability of the St Lucia system, the lakes may hold very important numbers of a species in some years and almost insignificant numbers in others. The numbers and diversity of waterbirds vary considerably in response to environmental changes. Not only are waterbirds largely absent during periods of high salinity or elevated water levels, but many species are migratory or nomadic, occurring only in defined seasons.

Assessment information

High Threat
The main threats to the Site are from agricultural and forestry plantations outside its boundaries, poaching, and invasive alien species. Management intervention on invasive species has already shown positive results, and are flexible in order to adapt to new and emerging invasive species when these are identified. As agricultural and forestry plantations are outside the Site, the management of their impact on the Site requires strong cross-sectoral collaboration at the local, provincial and national levels.
Fishing / Harvesting Aquatic Resources
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Fish stocks in Kosi Lake (which represents 4.7 % of the estuarine are of the Park (Consultation with park authority, 2014)) are being over-exploited as illegal gill nets are used in addition to traditional fish harvesting methods (Carbutt, 2012; Pers. comm., 2012).
Dams/ Water Management or Use
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Following research (Stretch et al 2008, 2011) the St Lucia Estuary and Mfolozi River systems were re-joined in July 2012, opening the way for the restoration of the Lake St Lucia ecosystem. Estuarine functioning has been restored and the system is open to the sea. Lowering the water table due to water abstraction from underground coastal aquifers possibly affects Lake Sibaya and Kosi lake systems, and other coastal wetlands.
Forestry/ Wood production
High Threat
Outside site
The moratorium on the issuing of new forestry licenses in the catchment area by the Department of Water Affairs has been effective as no new timber growing applications have been approved. Together with the DWA the ecological water reserve has been determined for Lake St Lucia, Sibaya Lake and the Kosi lakes. A hydrological study has been complete for the Buffer Zone and has been included in a revised Integrated Management Plan 2017-2021.
Housing/ Urban Areas
Very Low Threat
Outside site
Densification of rural settlements near the Park's boundaries, specifically Kosi Bay (KwaNgwqanase), Dukuduku, Nibela, Qongwana (just outside Sodwana), and Mseleni settlement (west of Lake Sibaya). Impacts are largely within the buffer zone but, a working buffer zone policy is in place that deals with the mitigation of development and visual impacts. (IUCN Consultation, 2012; Umkhanyakude District Municipality Integrated Development Plan 2012/13-2016/17)
Tourism/ Recreation Areas
Very Low Threat
Outside site
There have been localized but illegal resort developments (small scale) in the northern Coast Forest section of the Park (KwaDapha and Mabibi) with vegetation clearing (Pers. comm. 2012), all of which have been removed and demolished. Rehabilitation has been completed at these sites. Development controls are in place (Daily News, 2010; Daily News, 2011, R27)
Hunting (commercial/subsistence)
High Threat
Inside site
, Scattered(5-15%)
Poaching of especially rhino is an ongoing. Additional management measures have been put in place and include the appointment of an additional 30 field staff. It is intended to train another 70 people in 2017. Increased surveillance of the boundary fence is being undertaken. A programme to remove the horns of rhino as a disincentive to poachers is ongoing. The number of rhino poached in 2016 was 23 and by May 2017 four rhino had been poached (R27).
Water Pollution,
Shipping Lanes
Very Low Threat
Inside site
, Scattered(5-15%)
Outside site
Waste material from passing ships washes up onto the beaches. The Management Authority implements a coast care programme, a job creation programme for local communities, that includes the cleaning of beaches. Pollution from ship wrecks has been successfully prevented by emergency measures being implemented together with the South African Marine Safety Authority (SAMSA). (Pers. comm., 2012; Witness, 2008).
Invasive Non-Native/ Alien Species
High Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Several alien invasive plant species (including Chromolena odorata, Psidium guajava, Casuarina equitisifolia, Lantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus .) occur in the site, predominantly in areas of disturbance. An Invasive Species and Control Plan 2017-2021 is being implemented focussing on priority areas and the securing of funding (R27). The Asian invasive gastropod, Tarebia granifera has been recorded and monitoring is ongoing. Unfortunately there are no known control measures for this species (Raw, Miranda, Perissinotto, 2012, R27).
Erosion and Siltation/ Deposition
Very Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Casuarina trees have disrupted the coastal dune sediment building processes. These trees have been removed from the Kosi Bay Mouth, 9 Mile, Sodwana to the north of Adlams, and St Lucia beach and estuary mouth. Plans to remove trees at Sodwana Bay are subject of an EIA currently being undertaken (Consultation with park authority, 2014, R27).
Low Threat
Implementation of the legislation controlling shipping activities and the application of emergency response protocols reduce the potential and actual pollution threat. Future effects related to climate change will need to be considered to assess the threat status and appropriate adaptation responses.
Water Pollution,
Shipping Lanes
Low Threat
Inside site
, Widespread(15-50%)
Outside site
With escalation in shipping along the coast pollution from cleaning of bilge tanks of ships, potential oil spills from tankers, and occasional ship wrecks on the coast and reefs will occur. Emergency response procedures are in place to counter this treat. (Consultation with park authority, 2014).
Droughts,
Storms/Flooding,
Temperature extremes
Data Deficient
Inside site
, Widespread(15-50%)
Outside site
Predictions of climate change in south-eastern Africa are that it will become hotter and wetter and sea levels will rise. The future effects on these wetland and coastal systems are a matter of speculation.
Threats include commercial plantations in the buffer zone and alien invasive plants in- and outside the site, with proven and potential impacts on ground water levels and changes in natural habitats. The positive impacts of the management interventions that have been undertaken to restore habitats, control and mitigate threats and conserve the World Heritage values have been significant in reducing the potential severity of threats to the sustainability of the site.
Relationships with local people
Effective
Considerable effort and resources are allocated by the Management Authority to the management and maintenance of relationships with communities. Significant achievements have been made to date with regards to participation of local communities in decision-making and the implementation of programmes that deliver tangible benefits to local communities. The Authority has the capacity and resources to maintain ongoing relationships with communities (Consultation with park authority, 2014) and thus, through this process strengthening resilience of the Park.
Legal framework
Effective
Protection and environmental laws are in place and are enforced systematically by mandated law enforcement staff.
Enforcement
Effective
The national and provincial conservation and environmental laws and regulations are enforced by staff of the management Authority stationed at strategic locations within the World Heritage Site Daily foot patrols are undertaken by field rangers throughout the area. Law breakers are caught, arrested, and prosecuted.
Integration into regional and national planning systems
Effective
The site is integrated into the Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative which is a three country (South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique) programme focused on agriculture and tourism development (IMP, 2011).
Management system
Effective
The Integrated Management Plan for the site has been revised and approved for the 2017-2021 period. The day to day conservation management is undertaken by Ezemvelo KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife (provincial conservation authority, EKZNW), as defined by a management agreement with iSimangaliso Wetland Authority. A well capacitated staff undertakes the strategic and project management and day-to-day management of the site, implementation of community development programmes, management of research and monitoring (IMP, 2011; EKZNW, 2007, R27).
Management effectiveness
Effective
Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) assessment was undertaken for the 2015-2016 period. The outcome was a score of 86%.
Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations
Data Deficient
n/a
Boundaries
Effective
It is the intention of the Management Authority to demarcate the boundary of the Coastal Forest Reserve (R27).
Sustainable finance
Effective
Budget provision is made annually to the iSimangaliso Wetland Authority from National Government and to EKZNW from Provincial Government. The Management Authority continues to obtain funding for rehabilitation, restoration and re-development, including the implementation of substantial local economic development programmes.
Staff training and development
Effective
In house training of staff is ongoing and programmes are in place for staff to advance in their skills and or qualifications).
Sustainable use
Effective
Fish and certain plants continue to be harvested. Monitoring of these activities is in place.
Education and interpretation programs
Effective
About 100 schools and 5000 learners have been hosted by the Management Authority on visits to the site being accompanied by trained community guides who interpret Park values. An Environmental Education Assistant has been appointed to advance environmental education activities. A biannual School Award Program has involved some 11 250 learners from 75 schools who participated in 'My Rhino, Our Future' campaign using both artwork and mobilizing people to walk the length of the Park in support of rhino conservation. The bursary and academic support program is ongoing. It has supported 87 students at universities and technical colleges in conservation and tourism. The pass rate was 85% and to date 39 students have graduated. An internship program is ongoing. Eight internees have found employment with the management Authority (R27).
The Interpretative Signage Program is ongoing. Some 1500 new signs (direction, safety, regulation information) have replaced about 2500 out dated signs. A tree name labelling project is ongoing that is also linked to smart phone technology (R27).
Tourism and visitation management
Effective
The tourism industry around the World Heritage Site has experienced exponential growth since 1999. Plans for the redevelopment of Sodwana Bay camp and the EIA have been approved. An amount of R126.6 million is to be invested in the Coastal Forest Reserve section and Kosi Bay facilities. An EIA is being undertaken for the Bhangazi Heritage Site and the re-development of Charters Creek camp is underway. Some 300km of tourist roads has been refurbished as well as visitor facilities (e.g. hides, ablution, board walks, picnic sites, etc) (R27).
Monitoring
Highly Effective
Essential monitoring of biotic and abiotic components is ongoing. Monitoring of physical and chemical parameters of Lake St Lucia has improved with the implementation of a automatic electronic data gathering and storage application. This has allowed the Management Authority to assess the impact of the Lake restoration project (R27). Monitoring in the marine environment includes: line fish, surf-zone fish, turtles, coelacanth, whale shark and bull shark populations. Also assessments of reef fish and shark populations as well as coral reef monitoring surveys (long-term). Monitoring of estuarine system includes ground and estuarine waters. Animal population monitoring of endangered species (i.e. wild dog, leopard, rare and Red data plant species), also assessments of insect biodiversity and butterfly conservation assessments. Arising from a project of contraception of elephants monitoring is to be done (R27).
Research
Highly Effective
There are currently 130 research projects being undertaken by researchers and post-graduate students from both South Africa and other countries (R27). Research is approved on the basis of its contribution to management of the site, and to science in general. Research findings are fed into management decisions, and the iSimangaliso Authority commissions research required to assist with management of the site.
The Management Authority has been effective in its protection and management of the Site. The Integrated Management Plan has been revised for the 2017-2021 period and is currently being implemented. The Site achieved a high METT score and funding for protection and development has been forthcoming. Staff development is ongoing and visitor facilities improvements made. Research and environmental monitoring is ongoing.
Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site
Effective
The Management Authority has been effective in addressing outside threats through its relationship with local people, a robust legal framework, and the integration of the Site into both local and regional plans. It has been particularly effective in undertaking a relatively comprehensive education and student support program.
Best practice examples
(1)The delivery of benefits to communities, the co-management agreements in place with land claimants and the participation of local communities in decision making makes iSimangaliso's conservation model ' Developing to Conserve' useful for other Protected Area agencies. (2) The ongoing Western Shores collaborative management with SiyaQhubheka continues to maintain an effective and well buffered margin to the site. (3)Continuation of the alignment of the Management Authority with government's macro-economic and social priorities, has allowed for strong political support and access to funding for both the conservation and rural development programmes the Authority delivers to a range of beneficiaries.
World Heritage values

Geographically diverse area with superlative vistas along its 220km-long coast

Good
Trend
Improving
The aesthetic scenic values have improved with the implementation of management interventions, restoration of Lake St Lucia and the recovery in natural vegetation with associated fauna (R27).

The shifting salinity states within Lake St. Lucia

Low Concern
Trend
Improving
In the recent past, Lake St Lucia has been facing significant water shortages as a result of human intervention, and exacerbated by severe droughts. The St Lucia Restoration Project (R63 million) to re-establish the hydrological link of the uMfolozi River with the Lake St Lucia system is to be completed by June 2017. This has entailed the removal of 1.363 X 106 m3 of dredged spoil deposited in the past over some 60 years due to the mouth of the river being artificially separated from the estuary (R27).

Vivid natural spectacles including nesting turtles and large aggregations of flamingos and other waterfowl

Low Concern
Trend
Improving
The spectacle of large numbers of nesting turtles on the beaches and the abundance of dolphins and migration of whales and whale sharks off-shore is an outstanding natural phenomenon. The significant populations of waterfowl and large breeding colonies of pelicans, storks, herons and terns are impressive and add life to the wild natural landscape of the area (SoOUV, 2011). iSimangaliso Wetland is the most important breeding site for water birds in South Africa with presence of globally threatened species, range-restricted species, biome restricted species and the site holds more than 20 000 water birds on a regular basis (Barnes, 1998). Nesting loggerhead and leatherback turtles have been protected in the site for five decades. The nesting beaches are undisturbed with few anthropogenic disturbances, protecting both the nests and vulnerable hatchlings. The 2016/2017 nesting season yielded a total of 628 individual nesting female loggerhead turtles. This shows a decline since the 2011-2012 season. The numbers of female leatherbacks nesting on the beaches was 69, that is stable at 70-100 individuals (Nel 2014, R27). The turtle beaches have been severely eroded in October 2016. There is therefore concern regarding turtle hatching success rates (R27).

The combination of fluvial, marine and Aeolian processes which have resulted in a variety of landforms and are on-going to present day

Low Concern
Trend
Improving
Generally, abiotic and biotic processes continue to function largely unhindered. The dune-building processes have been restored with the removal of Casuarina tress (R27).

Significant diversity of African biota

Low Concern
Trend
Stable
Good viable populations of all indigenous plants are present including rare and endemic species. Restoration of grassland, coastal forest, wetland and estuarine habitats on the Eastern and Western shores and the reinstatement of more natural estuarine conditions within Lake St Lucia have enhanced the recovery of plant communities (Consultation with park authority, 2014). Good viable populations of all fish species are present including rare and endemic species, although some species populations are declining (Taylor, pers. comm., 2012). The reinstatement of wetland habitats on the Eastern and Western shores have substantially increased the habitat availability for amphibians (Consultation with park authority, 2014). Population sizes of two sea turtle species are increasing, and population trends for various birds and mammals appear to be improving (Taylor, pers. comm., 2012).
Assessment of the current state and trend of World Heritage values
Low Concern
Trend
Improving
All site values show significant improvement, and this has resulted in an increased resilience of this World Heritage site and its Outstanding Universal Value.

Additional information

Outdoor recreation and tourism
The natural coastal environment together with its tourist facilities provided both within and outside of the site are used by both local, national and international visitors to their benefit.
Importance for research
The site has been well studied and many post graduate students and research organizations continue to undertake research projects.
Coastal protection
Marine, terrestrial, wetland and estuarine biodiversity services function optimally as well as coastal protection are provided.
Fishing areas and conservation of fish stocks
Major fisheries dependent on estuarine functioning of St Lucia lake system.
Major benefits from nature conservation are received by both communities outside the site and further a-field. All other benefits are of major importance to the communities outside the site and to a lesser extent to a wider community.
Organization/ individuals Project duration Brief description of Active Projects
1 iSimangaliso Authorty (funding from iSimangaliso and Global Environmental Facility) Lake St Lucia Estuary restoration The iSimangaliso Wetland Park Authority has raised funding through the Global Environmental Facility to investigate and formulate long term solutions that will, as far as possible, restore the natural hydrological and ecological functioning of this important system. Using the best available scientific knowledge, current management activities are focused on diverting fresh water from the Mfolozi into the lake and allowing the Mfolozi and St Lucia mouths to join.
2 iSimangaliso Authority (funded by iSimangaliso Authority and Department of Environmental Affairs – Natural Resources Management) Land and Coast Care A management programme aimed at the removal / control of alien invasive plants that threaten the site and subsequent rehabilitation of disturbed environments. Over the past ten years 3 424 land care contracts were awarded to community based contractors who employed 35 464 people to undertake the rehabilitation of 22 500 ha at a cost of R 70 112 249.64. iSimangaliso is also implementing a Coast Care programme which focuses on the coastal areas of the Park. The programme employs 108 people living in the coastal areas over three years to keep the beaches clean, to build infrastructure and for alien vegetation control. Labour intensive methods are engaged to maximise the job creation aspects of the programme, and a capacity building and training component aimed at the people employed is included
3 iSimangaliso Authority (in partnership with Siyaqhubeka) Incorporation of land into iSimangaliso Wetland Park Removal of pine/gum plantations on the Eastern and Western Shores and subsequent rehabilitation of degraded environments. Joint management of incorporated land on Western Shores - Siyaqhubeka (Mondi)
4 iSimangaliso (in partnership with Ezemvelo) Game reintroduction programme Re-introduce, re-establish and maintain viable and ecologically appropriately sized populations of depleted or locally extinct indigenous species to optimal ecological carrying capacity and manage for genetic viability by application of appropriate wildlife management practices
5 iSimangaliso Authoriity (in partnership with the Transfrontier Commission and Ponta Do Ouro Partial Marine Reserve) Extension of World Heritage Site into Mozambique iSimangaliso continues to support the establishment of the one of the five TFCAs. There is action underway to establish a transfrontier site with neighbouring Mozambiqe as well as extend the marine reserve to align with the terrestrial component for the full length of the iSimangaliso Wetland Park. This would benefit the conservation of the area (IUCN evaluation, 1999).
6 iSimangaliso Authority iSimangaliso Authority funds monitoring, radio collars and research. (Partners are Ezemvelo/research organisations and individuals). Priority species conservation - turtle monitoring programme, rhino conservation programme, rare, threatened and endemic species programme; coral reef monitoring, coelacanth research programme;
7 iSimangaliso (in partnership with Ezemvelo and beneficiary communites) Natural Resource Management There is a wide range of natural resources harvested by communities living in and around the Park, including marine (such as mussels and fish), estuarine (crabs and fish) forest (such as iLala palm and wood for building, fuel wood and carving), grasslands (such as for cattle grazing) and wetland species (such as iNcema). iSimangaliso will continue to provide access for sustainable and wise utilisation of natural resources. Where appropriate, alternative external sources and livelihoods are being explored, facilitated and encouraged in consultation with the beneficiary communities.
8 iSimangaliso Authority (beneficiaries are land claimant and surround communities) Environmental education and awareness There are approximately half a million people living around the Park – most of who have never visited the Park or had a positive educational or recreational experience in the Park. Many people do not know why iSimangaliso was listed a World Heritage site. iSimangaliso has created an environmental education and awareness programme for the Park through a schools programme (environmental education fieldtrips/school awards) and an adult awareness programme (mobile workshops in the Park).
9 iSimangaliso Authority (beneficiaries are land claimant and surround communities) Benefits beyond boundaries Beneficiation programme that support iSimangaliso Authority’s conservation efforts by providing alternatives to environmentally harmful practices and garnering support through training, awareness, job and equity creation. The iSimangaliso Authority manages a suite of beneficiation programmes namely: • Rural enterprise programme: building and supporting entrepreneurs • Art and Craft programme: training and skilling local artists and crafters to access high value markets • Training tourism guides and chefs, front and backhouse staff as well as placing them in jobs • Comanagement training for land claim trusts: providing financial and management skills to land claimant trusts • Creating equity partnerships and ownership in the tourism sector with surrounding previously disadvantaged communities • Job creation and training through the landcare, coastcare and infrastructure programme.
Site need title Brief description of potential site needs Support needed for following years
1 iSimangaliso Authority Local Area Plans Funding to develop Local Area Plans (LAPs). Local Area Plans provide the framework for sustainable local economic development within each locality for specific areas within the Park , with due consideration given to the Park’s World Heritage status, basic human needs and Constitutional rights as well as the relevant legal, social, environmental, institutional, cultural, economic and financial parameters.
2 iSimangaliso Authority (Beneficiaries are surrounding previously disadvantaged communities) Expansion of environmental education and awareness
3 iSimangaliso Authority (Beneficiaries are surrounding previously disadvantaged communities) Alternatives to wetland farming

References

References
1 Barnes, K. (ed.) 1998. The Important Bird Areas of Southern Africa. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.
2 BirdLife (2015) iSimangaliso Wetland Park. <http://www.birdlife.org.za/conservation/important-bird-area…;.
3 Carbutt C. (2012) Management Effectiveness Assessment Report: iSimangaliso Wetland Park World Heritage Site. EKZNW manuscript.
4 Consultation with iSimangaliso Authority, 2014.
5 DWAF (2004) Preliminary determination of the Ecological Reserve on a rapid level for Lake St Lucia Estuary. Stellenbosch, South Africa: CSIR Report ENV-S-C 2004.
6 Daily News. February 2010. Wetlands resort demolished
7 Daily News. November 2009. Tear down or pay
8 EKZNW (2007) iSimangaliso Wetland Park Conservation Management Plan.
9 Forest Stewardship Council (2011) Celebrating success: Stories of FSC certification. 24-25pp
10 IUCN (1999) World Heritage Nomination - IUCN Technical Evaluation, Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park (South Africa). <http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/914/documents/&gt;.
11 Myhill, C., 2013. Personal comments iSimangaliso Authority: Manager of the Landcare Programme
12 Ramsay, P J and Mason, T R., 1990. Development of a type zoning model for Zululand coral reefs, Sodwana Bay, South Affrica. J. Coast. Res. 6: 829-852
13 Raw J.L., N.A.F. Miranda, R. Perissinotto, 2011. Response of the native gastropod Assiminea cf. Ovate (Krauss 1848) to chemical cues of the alien invasive gastropod Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822) in the St Lucia Estuary, South Africa. Presentation at the EKZNW Symposium, November 2011.
14 Schleyer, M.H. 1995. South African coral reef communities, in Wetlands of South Africa, ed. Cowan, G I. Pp 137-146. Department of Environmental Affairs
15 Stretch, D.C. (2011) In Bate GC, Whitfield AK, Forbes AT (2011) A review of studies on the Mfolozi estuary and associated floodplain with emphasis on information required by management for future reconnection of the river to the St Lucia system. Water Research Commission (WRC) Report No. KV255/10, & Appendix.
16 Taylor, R.H. (2012) Personal comments. Former EKZNW staff.
17 Tunley, K. (2009) eds by Chadwick, P and Nobula, S. State of Management of South Africa’s marine Protected Areas: WWF South Africa Report Series – 2009/Marine/001.
18 UNESCO (2003) Report on the State of Conservation of iSimangaliso Wetland Park. State of Conservation Information System of the World Heritage Centre. <http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/914/documents/&gt;.
19 UNESCO (2004) Report on the State of Conservation of iSimangaliso Wetland Park. State of Conservation Information System of the World Heritage Centre. <http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/914/documents/&gt;.
20 Umkhanyakude District Municipality, (2012/13-2016/17). Integrated Development Plan
21 Van Niekerk L, Turpie JK, (eds) 2011. South African Biodiversity Assessment 2011: Technical Report. Vol 3. Estuary Component. Pretoria, South Africa, National Biodiversity Institute.
22 Witness. December 2008. Barge scuttled
23 iSimangaliso Authority. (2011-2016). iSimangaliso Wetland Park Integrated Management Plan.
24 iSimangaliso Wetland Park Authority (2011) Lake St Lucia: understanding the problem and finding the solution. Background Information Document. (BID 2011/07)
25 iSimangaliso Wetland Park Integrated Management Plan (2011-2016). iSimangaliso Wetland Park Authority.