Greater Blue Mountains Area

Australia
Inscribed in
2000
Criteria
(ix)
(x)
Designation
KBA,
IBA

The Greater Blue Mountains Area consists of 1.03 million ha of sandstone plateaux, escarpments and gorges dominated by temperate eucalypt forest. The site, comprised of eight protected areas, is noted for its representation of the evolutionary adaptation and diversification of the eucalypts in post-Gondwana isolation on the Australian continent. Ninety-one eucalypt taxa occur within the Greater Blue Mountains Area which is also outstanding for its exceptional expression of the structural and ecological diversity of the eucalypts associated with its wide range of habitats. The site provides significant representation of Australia's biodiversity with ten percent of the vascular flora as well as significant numbers of rare or threatened species, including endemic and evolutionary relict species, such as the Wollemi pine, which have persisted in highly-restricted microsites.
© UNESCO

Summary

2017 Conservation Outlook

Finalised on
09 Nov 2017
Good with some concerns
The site has a high value for the protection of natural biological processes and its values remain relatively intact, but improved management of vertebrate pests, fire and the impacts of coal mining and urban development in adjacent areas is required. Most of the current threats are from activities outside the WHA boundary including coal mining. Although these threats are high they are capable of being resolved by better planning and management. However, the large size and extensive perimeter of the site and the existence of major enclaves (inholdings) is creating management difficulties. Achieving a high level of conservation will require even greater levels of cooperation particularly with regard to protection of the GBMWHA on adjacent lands.

Current state and trend of VALUES

Low Concern
Trend
Stable
The site has a high value for the protection of natural biological processes but improved management of vertebrate pests, fire and the impacts of coal mining and urban development in adjacent areas is required. Most of the natural plant communities and habitats of the site remain close to pristine. However, the site is threatened by potential spread of vertebrate pests, and weeds.

Overall THREATS

High Threat
Most of the current threats are from activities outside the WHA boundary including coal mining. Although these threats are high they are capable of being mitigated by better planning and management of adjacent land uses. The main potential threats are from urban development in the major corridor through the site and from infrastructure development supporting the growth of Sydney. Climate change threatens the values of the reserves.

Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT

Effective
The site has an effective management system in place and benefits from a strong legal framework, but the relatively high boundary to area ratio is such that the site is exposed to many threats from outside. Major efforts have been made to co-ordinate management but problems remain because of the need to provide improved protection from threats from outside the site boundaries.

Full assessment

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Finalised on
09 Nov 2017

Description of values

A centre of diversification for the Australian scleromorphic flora

Criterion
(ix)
The Greater Blue Mountains include outstanding and representative examples in a relatively small area of the evolution and adaptation of the genus Eucalyptus and eucalypt-dominated vegetation on the Australian continent. The site contains a wide and balanced representation of eucalypt habitats including wet and dry sclerophyll forests and mallee heathlands, as well as localised swamps, wetlands and grassland. It is a centre of diversification for the Australian scleromorphic flora, including significant aspects of eucalypt evolution and radiation. Representative examples of the dynamic processes in its eucalypt-dominated ecosystems cover the full range of interactions between eucalypts, understorey, fauna, environment and fire. The site includes primitive species of outstanding significance to the evolution of the earth’s plant life, such as the highly restricted Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis) and the Blue Mountains pine (Pherosphaera fitzgeraldii). These are examples of ancient, relict species with Gondwanan affinities that have survived past climatic changes and demonstrate the highly unusual juxtaposition of Gondwanan taxa with the diverse scleromorphic flora (World Heritage Committee, 2013).

An outstanding diversity of habitats and plant communities

Criterion
(x)
The site includes an outstanding diversity of habitats and plant communities that support its globally significant species and ecosystem diversity (152 plant families, 484 genera and c. 1,500 species). A significant proportion of the Australian continent’s biodiversity, especially its scleromorphic flora, occur in the area. Plant families represented by exceptionally high levels of species diversity here include Myrtaceae (150 species), Fabaceae (149 species), and Proteaeceae (77 species). Eucalypts (Eucalyptus, Angophora and Corymbia, all in the family Myrtaceae) which dominate the Australian continent are well represented by more than 90 species (13% of the global total). The genus Acacia (in the family Fabaceae) is represented by 64 species. The site includes primitive and relictual species with Gondwanan affinities (Wollemia, Pherosphaera, Lomatia, Dracophyllum, Acrophyllum, Podocarpus and Atkinsonia) and supports many plants of conservation significance including 114 endemic species and 177threatened species. The diverse plant communities and habitats support more than 400 vertebrate taxa (of which 40 are threatened), comprising some 52 mammal, 63 reptile, over 30 frog and about one third (265 species) of Australia’s bird species. Charismatic vertebrates such as the platypus and echidna occur in the area. Although invertebrates are still poorly known, the area supports an estimated 120 butterfly and 4,000 moth species, and a rich cave invertebrate fauna (67 taxa) (World Heritage Committee, 2013).

Assessment information

High Threat
Many of the current threats are from activities outside the WHA boundary. Management of these threats could benefit from a broad planning overlay (or buffer zone) over adjacent lands identifying the source of these threats and limiting these activities
Fire/ Fire Suppression
High Threat
Inside site
, Throughout(>50%)
Hazard reduction to protect urban areas in the central corridor interferes with natural processes and threatens the Grose Valley Wilderness. (Hammil et al., 2010; Tasker et al., n.d.). Climate change impacts could shift fire regimes in what is already one of the world’s most fire prone ecosystems. Main threats relate to the impact of altered or inappropriate fire regimes on the ecological, biological and evolutionary processes within the eucalypt dominated ecosystems, and the impact of inappropriate fire regimes on the quality of habitats for the in-situ conservation of the biological diversity of primitive species with Gondwana affinities and, of rare or threatened plants and animals.
Water Pollution
High Threat
Inside site
, Widespread(15-50%)
The Wollangambe, Wolgan and Colo Rivers are affected by polluted water from collieries. The Colo is a dedicated Wild River (Benson et al., 2012; Hansen, 2010).
Other
High Threat
Inside site
, Scattered(5-15%)
Long wall coal mining close to the boundary of the World Heritage Area threatens cliff collapse, water pollution, lowering of water tables, desiccation of swamps and the loss of water in lakes. In the Thirlmere Lakes the water levels have been reduced between 1.5 and 2.5 metres. Subsidence from mining causes drying out of peat, swamp collapse and the killing of swamp vegetation. The threats are greatest in the Gardens of Stone area on the Newnes Plateau (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, 2013; Goldrey et al., 2010, Pells Consulting, 2012). This may permanently alter water flow into the WHA that maintains stream flow.
Tourism/ Recreation Areas
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
The development of the Emirates 6 star resort inside the Wollemi National Park was negotiated as a land swap of previously disturbed farmland within the park for high conservation freehold land. The process has been stalled because the land swap is subject to negotiating an Indigenous Land Use Agreement and this has not been finalised. The section of the Resort on park is subject to a 21 year lease to allow the land swap to be resolved.
Invasive Non-Native/ Alien Species
High Threat
Inside site
, Throughout(>50%)
The main current threat is from the root rot pathogen Phythophthora cinnamomi which causes vegetation dieback. It is spread by human activities (including boots, bikes and vehicles) and moves from ridge tops down slopes and water courses (Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute, 2012; Chapple et al., 2011; National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2012). Invasive plant and animal pests (including carp, deer, dogs, foxes, goats, pigs, rabbits, cats, cattle) are managed in national parks management plans and implemented in cooperation with neighbours.
High Threat
The main potential threats arise from urban related developments in the major corridor through the site and adjacent lands to the east of the site. These threats include fire management regimes, flood mitigation and airport development. These are all ‘high’ threats which incrementally threaten World Heritage values. Climate change and associated changes in weed and feral animals populations as well as fire regimes further threaten values.
Water Pollution
High Threat
Inside site
, Widespread(15-50%)
Outside site
Exploration for coal seam gas has commenced in the Putty Enclave. While there are no up to date reports on progress if this development goes ahead it could threaten the Colo Wild River and the Wollemi Wilderness with water pollution (IUCN Consultation, 2017).
Dams/ Water Management or Use
High Threat
Inside site
, Scattered(5-15%)
The proposal to raise the height of the Warragamba Dam wall by 14 meters for temporary flood mitigation purposes would, if implemented, inundate parts of the Wollondilly, Kedumba, Kowmung and Cox Rivers in the Nattai, Blue Mountains, and Kanangra-Boyd National Parks, the Nattai and Kanangra-Boyd Wilderness Areas and the Kowmung Wild River, killing vegetation and depositing sediment). The most recent NSW Government proposal to raise the height of the dam wall has been determined a controlled action under the EPBC Act (Referral no. 2017/7940). The proposal is being assessed under a Cwth and NSW bilateral agreement and an EIS is being prepared. (IUCN Consultation, 2017). (http://www.waternsw.com.au/projects/warragamba-dam-raising).
Housing/ Urban Areas
High Threat
Inside site
, Scattered(5-15%)
Outside site
A new Growth Plan for the Sydney Metropolitan Area could result in denser urban development in the central corridor causing hardening of surfaces, greater storm water run off and water and air pollution . This will also increase pressure for increased hazard reduction to manage fire risk to new developments.
Temperature extremes
High Threat
Inside site
, Throughout(>50%)
There is concern that climate change could result in more virulent forms of Phytophthora cinnamomi and affect natural fire regimes through a greater incidence of fires (Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute, 2006; IUCN Consultation, 2017).
Commercial/ Industrial Areas,
Tourism/ Recreation Areas
High Threat
Inside site
, Widespread(15-50%)
Outside site
An Environmental Impact Statement for the proposed airport has been approved by the Australian Government. The proposed airport is approximately seven kilometres from the boundary of the World Heritage area. The EIS found that construction of the proposed airport would have no direct impacts on the GBMWHA or its World Heritage values. Detailed assessment was undertaken of possible indirect impacts from aircraft overflights, including consideration of a number of tourism and wilderness areas within the GBMWHA. This assessment included noise, air quality, visual impacts and the potential for dumping of fuel (http://westernsydneyairport.gov.au/media-resources/resources/environmental-assessment/index.aspx). Despite this, the presence of aircraft above major tourist sites and wilderness areas will add to the incremental negative impacts of Sydney's growth on the site. While the construction and operation of the airport infrastructure was found to have no direct impacts on the World Heritage values, the flight paths have not yet been determined or assessed. These flight paths will be the subject of a separate referral under the EPBC Act at which time the potential threat to World Heritage values from aircraft noise will be further assessed (IUCN Consultation, 2017).
Most of the current threats are from activities outside the WHA boundary including coal mining. Although these threats are high they are capable of being mitigated by better planning and management of adjacent land uses. The main potential threats are from urban development in the major corridor through the site and from infrastructure development supporting the growth of Sydney. Climate change threatens the values of the reserves.
Relationships with local people
Highly Effective
The nomination of the World Heritage Area back in 2000 was strongly supported by local communities and the Blue Mountains City Council. There is an Advisory Committee which includes local representatives and traditional owners. There is also a Greater Blue Mountains Aboriginal Reference Group. A Strategic Plan (National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, 2009) has been developed which helps to coordinate management of the 8 protected areas which make up the GBMWHA.
Legal framework
Effective
The site has an adequate legal framework which ensures effective coordination between the federal, State and local Governments and their agencies. The protected areas within the WHA are protected by means of the federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, the National Parks and Wildlife Act, and the Wilderness Act (National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, 2009). However there is no formal buffer zone surrounding the property.
Enforcement
Effective
Law enforcement is carried out by NSW NPWS under the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Act and Wilderness Act. Resources for enforcement are limited.
Integration into regional and national planning systems
Effective
The Strategic Plan for the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, 2009 (National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, 2009) provides for the integration of management. It is due to be reviewed in 2019. Additional coordination is provided through the Water Catchment Management Act.
Management system
Effective
The property consists of seven adjacent national parks and a single karst conservation reserve (World Heritage Committee, 2013). There are management plans for each of the 8 protected areas in the WHA (Blue Mountains National Park Plan of Management, 2001; Kanangra-Boyd National Park Plan of Management, 2001; Wollemi National Park Plan of Management, 2001; Nattai National Park Plan of Management 2001; Gardens of Stone National Park Plan of Management, 2009; Thirlmere Lakes National Park draft Plan of Management, 2014; Yengo National Park Plan of Management, 2009; and Jenolan Karst Conservation Reserve Draft Plan of Management, 2012), but some are in need of updating. The Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area Strategic Plan (National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, 2009) is an outstanding example of the coordination of planning and management of an area of 1,032,649 hectares in 8 protected areas. It is also a good example of local (12 Local Government Areas), State, and federal cooperation.
Management effectiveness
Effective
The EPBC Act, the National Parks and Wildlife Act, the Wilderness Act and the GBMWHA Strategic Planare the main planning tools but the relatively high boundary to area ratio is such that the WHA is exposed to many threats from outside. This requires more effective planning and management of adjacent areas including enclaves and in particular the lands in the Warragamba Catchment (National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, 2009; Department of the Environment, World Heritage and The Arts, n.d.).
Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations
Data Deficient
No recent Committee Decisions.
Boundaries
Some Concern
The boundary of the GBMWHA is relatively lengthy and the WHA includes some major enclaves. Boundary anomalies affecting integrity have been mentioned in the Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (World Heritage Committee, 2013). The GBMWHA Advisory Committee has recommended modification of the WHA boundaries to include the additions to the reserves made since 2000 (over 36,000 hectares). The GBMWHA Advisory Committee also recommend extensive expansion of over 230,000 hectares of significant natural areas adjacent to the GBMWHA (Benson et al., 2012).
Sustainable finance
Effective
The site is managed under finance for the NPWS (NSW) and National Heritage Trust (National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, 2009). No recent information on the current levels of funding is available.
Staff training and development
Effective
Staff training is executed through the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, 2009).
Sustainable use
Effective
The protected areas in the GBMWHA make a major contribution to sustainable land use, particularly through catchment protection and water supply (National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, 2009).
Education and interpretation programs
Effective
There are a large number of national and international visitors to the GBMWHA and visitor information centres are located at the major attraction hubs (National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, 2009).
Tourism and visitation management
Effective
Information centres are located at the major attraction hubs.
Monitoring
Highly Effective
The NSW State of the Parks system assesses management effectiveness for the reserves that make up the WHA. The NPWS works to support the conservation of the property through applied research and community engagement. This includes some aspects of monitoring of the integrity of the ecosystems.
Research
Effective
Research is carried out by the federal and state agencies and the Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute (National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, 2009), as well as universities. Assessment is continuing into the additional national and heritage values of the site and some adjacent lands.. Relevant research is documented in the NSW State of the Parks system.
The site has an effective management system in place and benefits from a strong legal framework, but the relatively high boundary to area ratio is such that the site is exposed to many threats from outside. Major efforts have been made to co-ordinate management but problems remain because of the need to provide improved protection from threats from outside the site boundaries.
Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site
Some Concern
There is a some concern about the long boundary and major enclaves. Attention is needed to the additional values and areas which would add to the OUV and the integrity of the WHA.
Best practice examples
The NSW State of the Parks system is a best practice system for assessing management effectiveness. The GBMWHA is one of the only sites in Australia with a dedicated site based research and community engagement institute - the Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute which is a not for profit organisation. The Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area Strategic Plan (National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, 2009) is an outstanding example of the coordination of planning and management of an area of 1,032,649 hectares in 8 protected areas. It is also an excellent example of local (12 Local Government Areas), State, and federal cooperation.
World Heritage values

A centre of diversification for the Australian scleromorphic flora

High Concern
Trend
Data Deficient
The site has a high value for the protection of natural biological processes but improved management of vertebrate pests, fire and the impacts of coal mining and urban development in adjacent areas is required. (Hansen, 2010; National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, 2012; Tasker et al., n.d.)

An outstanding diversity of habitats and plant communities

Low Concern
Trend
Stable
Most of the natural bushland of the site remains close to pristine. The plant communities and habitats occur as an extensive, largely undisturbed matrix almost entirely free of structures, earthworks and other human intervention (World Heritage Committee, 2013). However, the site is threatened by the potential spread of vertebrate pests and weeds. More than 60 declared noxious weeds are known to occur in the GBMWHA and many hundreds of environmental weeds of concern have the potential to invade disturbed areas (National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, 2009).
Assessment of the current state and trend of World Heritage values
Low Concern
Trend
Stable
The site has a high value for the protection of natural biological processes but improved management of vertebrate pests, fire and the impacts of coal mining and urban development in adjacent areas is required. Most of the natural plant communities and habitats of the site remain close to pristine. However, the site is threatened by potential spread of vertebrate pests, and weeds.

Additional information

Flood prevention,
Water provision (importance for water quantity and quality),
Pollination
The site provides major ecosystem services to Sydney region by water flow and quality, cleaning air, providing pollinators, regulating floods and drought flow of water to rivers, stopping river sedimentation, etc.
Factors negatively affecting provision of this benefit
Climate change
Impact level - High
Trend - Increasing
Pollution
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Overexploitation
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Invasive species
Impact level - Moderate
Trend - Continuing
Habitat change
Impact level - Moderate
Trend - Continuing
Water provision (importance for water quantity and quality)
The site protects the catchment for Australia’s largest city, Sydney. Joint management arrangements are in place between the NPWS and catchment management authorities.
Factors negatively affecting provision of this benefit
Climate change
Impact level - Low
Trend - Increasing
Pollution
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Overexploitation
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Invasive species
Impact level - Moderate
Trend - Continuing
Habitat change
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Outdoor recreation and tourism
Highly attractive natural scenery and extensive wilderness areas – close proximity to Sydney (5 million people)
Factors negatively affecting provision of this benefit
Climate change
Impact level - Low
Trend - Increasing
Pollution
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Overexploitation
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Invasive species
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Habitat change
Impact level - Moderate
Trend - Increasing
Importance for research
Valuable for explanation of natural processes in evolution of landscapes
Factors negatively affecting provision of this benefit
Climate change
Impact level - High
Trend - Increasing
Pollution
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Overexploitation
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Invasive species
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Habitat change
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Contribution to education
Valuable for building knowledge. Close to several Universities.
Factors negatively affecting provision of this benefit
Climate change
Impact level - Low
Trend - Increasing
Pollution
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Overexploitation
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Invasive species
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
Habitat change
Impact level - Low
Trend - Continuing
The GBMWHA contains over 1 million hectares of protected areas and has key benefits on a local, regional and global level of nature conservation with exceptional representation of Eucalyptus dominated sclerophyll ecosystems and biodiversity; recreation for the highly attractive natural scenery and extensive wilderness areas and close proximity to Sydney (4.5 million people); education for the explanation of natural processes in evolution of landscapes and scientific research for building knowledge.

On a regional level the site provides major ecosystem services to the Sydney region by water flow and quality, cleaning air, providing pollinators, regulating floods and drought flow of water to rivers, stopping river sedimentation, etc; and watershed protection as the site protects the drinking water catchment for Australia’s largest city, Sydney.

The site is not listed for cultural associations although does have strong cultural and spiritual connection for the 6 Aboriginal Language groups that share Country. The site contains, or is closely associated with a number of declared Aboriginal places: the Three Sisters, The Gully, Kings Tableland, Red Hands Cave, Euroka, Mt Yengo, Shaws Creek, Blackfellows Hand Cave.
.
Organization/ individuals Project duration Brief description of Active Projects
1 Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute Research into ecosystems and threats. Research into historical and social aspects. Community engagement.
2 GBMWHA Management Committee Oversight of management and strategic plan
3 NSW Department of Planning and Environment Development of appropriate planning and management standards for GBMWHA enclaves and buffer areas
4 GBMWHA Advisory Committee Review of GBMWHA Strategic Plan and assessment of additional national heritage values
5 Blue Mountains Conservation Society Education re OUV of GBMWHA
6 Greater Blue Mountains Aboriginal Reference Group Development of knowledge re Aboriginal heritage of GBMWHA
7 NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Extensive number of conservation projects across the 8 reserves of the GBMWHA and in collaboration with neighbours across extensive buffer areas.
Site need title Brief description of potential site needs Support needed for following years
1 Priority research needs The GBMWHA Advisory Committee have developed a list of priority research projects for the reserves. These projects should be implemented.
2 Management effectiveness monitoring Ensure State of the Parks assessments are continued for the reserves that make up the GBMWHA

References

References
1 AconsuLT (2013) Environmental Impact Assessment for Livestock Intensive Industry Proposed Poultry Farm (Duck – Live Egg Production) including twelve (12) Individual Poultry Sheds, Cool Room, Machinery Shed, Shaving Shed, Office and Amenities Building, Car Parking and Lot Consolidation. AconsuLT, Erina, January, 2013.
2 Benson, D and Smith, J (2015) Protecting biodiversity values in response to long-term impacts: additional areas recommended for inclusion in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area Chapter 2 in Values for a New Generation, Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Advisory Committee, Katoomba 2015
3 Benson, D. and Baird, I.R.C. (2012) ‘Vegetation, fauna and groundwater interrelations in low temperate montane peat swamps in Upper Blue Mountains’ in Cunninghamia, 2012 12(4) 267-307.
4 Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute (2006) Impact of Climate Change on World Heritage Sites, Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, Australia.
5 Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute (2012) Phytopthora Forum. Understanding and responding to the threat of Phytophora in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area.
6 Blue Mountains World Heritage Institute (2013) Statement re Potential Changes to the Blue Mountains City Council’s Local Environment Plan (LEP 11/3/13).
7 Chapple, R.S, Ramp, D., Bradstock, R.A., Merson, J.A., Auld, T.D., Fleming, P.J.S., and Mulley, R.C. (2011) ‘Integrating Science into Management of Ecosystems in the Greater Blue Mountains’ in Environmental Management 2011 48 659-674.
8 Colong Foundation for Wilderness (2010) Report on the impacts of coal mining on the Gardens of Stone, April, 2010.
9 Department of Environment and Conservation, New South Wales, NPWS (2004) Fire Management Strategy Wollemi National Park.
10 Department of Planning and Infrastructure, New South Wales (2013) Metropolitan Strategy for Sydney 2031. Regional Growth Plan.
11 Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (2013) EPBC Referral Notice Angus Place Mine Extension Project.
12 Department of the Environment, World Heritage and The Arts (no date) The Greater Blue Mountains Area Characteristics.
13 EPBC Act referral 2017/7940 Warragamba Dam raising (Water NSW)
http://epbcnotices.environment.gov.au/_entity/annotation/8a…
14 Goldrey, D., Mactaggart, B., and Merrick, N. (2010) Determining whether or not significant impact has occurred in Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone Within the Angus Place Colliery Base on Newnes Plateau.
15 Gundungurra Area Agreement 2015, Indigenous Land Use Agreement , NI2014/001, Native Title Tribunal 2015
16 Hammill, K., and Tasker, L. (2010) Vegetation, Fire and Climate Change in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, Department of Climate Change and Water, National Parks and Wildlife Service, NSW.
17 Hansen, M. (2010) Newnes Plateau Shrub Swamp Aerial Condition Assessment Project.
18 Independent Thirlmere Lakes Inquiry Committee, Thirlmere Lakes Inquiry Final Report of the Independent Committee, NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, Sydney 2012
19 National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales (2012) Strategies to Strengthen Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat Management in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, May, 2012.
20 National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales (1997) Thirlmere Lakes National Park Plan of Management November 1997.
21 National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales (2001) Blue Mountains National Park Plan of Management, May, 2001.
22 National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales (2001) Nattai National Park Plan of Management, April, 2001.
23 National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales (2001) Wollemi National Park Plan of Management, April 2001.
24 National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales (2003) Fire Management Plan, Yengo National Park, Parr State Conservation Area and Dharug National Park, May, 2003.
25 National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales (2009) Gardens of Stone National Park Plan of Management.
26 National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales (2009) Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area Strategic Plan, Department of Environment and Climate Change, New South Wales.
27 National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales (2009) Yengo National Park, Parr State Conservation Area and Finchley Aboriginal Area Plan of Management
28 National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales (2012) Jenolan Karst Reserve Draft Plan of Management.
29 New South Wales Parliament (2010) The National Parks and Wildlife Amendment (Tourist and Vistors) Act, 2010.
30 Office of the Environment and Heritage (2011) Draft Blue Mountains Regional Pest Management Strategy Part B 2012-2015.
31 Pells Consulting (2012) Report on Water Levels at Thirlmere Lakes, February, 2012.
32 Sydney Water (1995) Proposed Flood Mitigation Dam, Information Booklet.
33 Tasker, E.M., and Hammill, K.A. (no date) Fire Regimes and Vegetation in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, New South Wales Office of the Environment and Heritage.
34 World Heritage Centre, UNESCO (2013) Greater Blue Mountains Area Statement of Significance.
35 World Heritage Committee (2013) Retrospective Statement of Outstanding Universal Value Greater Blue Mountains Area.