Serengeti National Park
The vast plains of the Serengeti comprise 1.5 million ha of savannah. The annual migration to permanent water holes of vast herds of herbivores (wildebeest, gazelles and zebras), followed by their predators, is one of the most impressive natural events in the world. © UNESCO
2017 Conservation Outlook
Current state and trend of VALUES
Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT
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Description of values
Greatest terrestrial mammal migration on Earth
Outstanding savanna scenery
Complex and complete mammalian community
Diversity of savanna communities
Diversity of other fauna and flora
Rare and endangered species
Large, ecologically dynamic self-sustaining ecosystem
The Committee has recently requested the SP to conduct an EIA for the heavily used Naabi Hill- Seronera road through the property (World Heritage Committee, 2016).
A project to expand Mugumu Airport to accommodate international flights has been proposed, and the SP has reported that the EIA is undergoing revision following a first review by the National Environment Management Council (Tanzania, 2016). The EIA has not yet been made available for external review.
Norera Dam on the Amala River in Kenya, and Borenga Dam on the Mara River in Tanzania, appear to be linked as part of a transboundary initiative by the Nile Basin Initiative. Feasibility studies from December 2014 for the two projects state that full ESIAs, Management Plans and Resettlement Actions Plans have been produced. The two projects would each comprise of new road construction, improvement of existing roads, electricity transmission lines, pipes for water transport and a hydroelectric dam.
The Ewaso Ng’iro Hydroelectric Project (ENP) was discussed by the Committee in 2001 and 2002, but the current status of the project is unclear at present. According to a publically available PowerPoint dated March 2014, it will comprise of three successional dams that would avert water from the Mara River basin to Lake Natron. This has the likelihood of reducing water flow into the Serengeti ecosystem thereby possibly impacting wildlife migration and hence the OUV of Serengeti, as well as altering water flow into Lake Natron, which the Committee has been requesting the SPs of Kenya and Tanzania to consider as a serial transnational extension to Kenya Lake System of the Great Rift Valley, given its critical importance for the conservation of lesser flamingo.
These multiple hydroelectric projects proposed upstream of Serengeti on rivers, which are the main tributaries of the Mara River – the key water source within Serengeti raise considerable concerns.
|№||Organization/ individuals||Project duration||Brief description of Active Projects|
|1||Frankfurt Zoological Society||Support for ecological monitoring, resource protection, and tourism activities, community conservation|
|2||Tanzania Wildlife Research Institute||Implementation of regular aerial censuses, wildlife research|
|3||Friends of Serengeti (Switzerland)||Support of resource protection and infrastructure projects|
|4||WWF||Monitoring and coordination of efforts towards sustainable management of the Mara river|
|№||Site need title||Brief description of potential site needs||Support needed for following years|
|1||World Bank||Serengeti South Alternative Road, rural development in areas adjacent to the Serengeti National Park|
|2||Norwegian Embassy||Research on road requirements and routing options|
|3||German Federal Ministry of Economic Co-operation and Development, BMZ with GIZ and KFW||Economic development activities in adjoining districts and park protection|
|1||BirdLife International (2017) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Serengeti National Park. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/09/2017.|
|2||Cleaveland, S. et al., 2000. Serological and demographic evidence for domestic dogs as source of canine distemper virus infection for Serengeti wildlife. Microbiology 72 (2000) 217-227.|
|3||Dobson, A.P., Borner, M., Sinclair A.R.E et al. (2010) Road will ruin Serengeti. Nature 467, 272–273.|
|4||Holdo, R.M, Fryxell, J.M., Sinclair, A.R.E., Dobson, A. and Holt R.D. (2011) Predicted impact of barriers to migration on the Serengeti wildebeest population. PLoS ONE 6(1): e16370. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016370.|
|5||Hopcraft, G. et al (2015) Why are wildebeest the most abundant herbivore in the Serengeti ecosystem? Book chapter in Serengeti IV: Sustaining biodiversity in a coupled human-natural system. Sinclair, A.R.E., Mduma, S.A.R., and Packer, C. (eds.). Chicago University Press.|
|6||IUCN (1981) World Heritage Nomination – IUCN Technical Evaluation, Serengeti National Park (United Republic of Tanzania). <http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/156/documents/>.|
|7||Statement by the former Tanzanian Minister of Tourism, Hon. Ezekiel Maige, to the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, 35th session, 2011, Paris, France.|
|8||TAWIRI (2010) Aerial Census in the Serengeti Ecosystem, SE46, Final report.|
|9||Tanzania (2010) Report of the State Party to the World Heritage Committee on the state of conservation of Serengeti National Park (United Republic of Tanzania).|
|10||Tanzania (2011) Report of the State Party to the World Heritage Committee on the state of conservation of Serengeti National Park (United Republic of Tanzania).|
|11||Tanzania (2012) Report of the State Party to the World Heritage Committee on the state of conservation of Serengeti National Park (United Republic of Tanzania).|
|12||Tanzania (2014) Report of the State Party to the World Heritage Committee on the state of conservation of Serengeti National Park (United Republic of Tanzania). Summary: <http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/156/documents/>.|
|13||Tanzania (2016) Report of the State Party to the World Heritage Committee on the state of conservation of Serengeti National Park (United Republic of Tanzania). <http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/156/documents/>. Accessed 4 September 2017.|
|14||Tanzania National Parks (2005) Serengeti National Park General Management Plan 2006-16.|
|15||Thirgood et al. (2004) Can parks protect migratory ungulates? The case of the Serengeti wildebeest. Animal Conservation 7 (2004), 113-120.|
|16||UNEP-WCMC (2011) Serengeti National Park. UNEP-WCMC World Heritage Information Sheets. Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC.|
|17||UNESCO (2016) Report on the State of Conservation of Serengeti National Park. State of Conservation Information System of the World Heritage Centre. <http://whc.unesco.org/en/soc/3458>.|
|18||UNESCO and IUCN (2010) Reactive Monitoring Mission Report Serengeti National Park (United Republic of Tanzania). Paris, France and Gland, Switzerland: UNESCO World Heritage Centre and IUCN.|
|19||Walpole, M., Y. Ndoinyo, R. Kibasa, C. Masanja, M. Somba, and B. Sungura, (2004) An Assessment of Human-Elephant Conflict in the Western Serengeti. Report.|
|20||World Heritage Committee (2012) Decision 36 COM 8E, Serengeti National Park (United Republic of Tanzania) Statement of Outstanding Universal Value. <http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/4841>.|
|21||World Heritage Committee (2016) Decision 40 COM 7B.83. Serengeti National Park (United Republic of Tanzania). Istanbul, Turkey. <http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/6748>. Accessed 4 September 2017.|