Durmitor National Park
This breathtaking national park was formed by glaciers and is traversed by rivers and underground streams. Along the Tara river canyon, which has the deepest gorges in Europe, the dense pine forests are interspersed with clear lakes and harbour a wide range of endemic flora.
2017 Conservation Outlook
Current state and trend of VALUES
Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT
Click the + and - signs to expand or collapse full accounts of information under each topic. You can also view the entire list of information by clicking Expand all on the top left.
Description of values
Exceptional natural beauty
The River Tara, one of the last wild rivers in Europe, has pure, clear waters, a gorge 1,300 m deep and notable floristic and faunistic diversity. The 16 glacial lakes of the Durmitor and the canyons of the Tara, Susica and Draga rivers were formed during the Quaternary period, following the sudden thaw of the snow and the formation of glaciers on the Durmitor and neighboring mountains. There are numerous impressive examples of weathering processes, rock shapes and land features characteristic of karstic erosion, fluvial erosion and glacial erosion (WHC 2014).
layers inclined at an angle of 90 degrees in the Durmitor Massif. There are displays many karst features: rugged peaks, limestone plateaus, deep canyons (such as the Tara gorge, of 60 km length), caves (including Montenegro's deepest cave and subterranean rivers draining some of the glacial lakes), etc. (WHC 2015).
Rare and endemic species
The Detailed Spatial Plan (DSP) for the corridor of 400 kV transmission line with the optical cable from the Montenegrin coast to Pljevlja and 500 kV submarine cable with optical cable, Italy - Montenegro, which was adopted by the Government of Montenegro at the meeting of 28 July 2011, includes parts of the Municipalities of Budva, Kotor, Cetinje, Niksic, Pluzine, Savnik, Zabljak and Pljevlja. In order to create a connection between the coast and Pljevlja, it is inevitable for the future corridor to pass through the National Parks of Lovcen and Durmitor (Conservation Measures Partnership, 2013). While existing and planned power lines clearly affect the natural beauty of the area, their detailed impact on avifauna is not clear.
although they are localized and not likely to result in significant negative effects on the level of the entire property. Furthermore a very large dam project on the Tara itself with potentially irreversible damages has been discussed since the late 90's (see potential threats).
Illegal fishing and inadequate fishing policy, including restocking with alien species, is a major threat to the aquatic life of the Tara River and the lakes within the Park (WHC, 2016). Illegal fishing involves use of harpoons with scuba equipment.
The town of Zabljak with its immediate surroundings have become interesting for investors in the recent years; a large number of holiday homes were built in the protection zone of the national park", often built without any prior plans and adversely affecting the overall image of the space (R8). The government adopted a decision on developing a new Sppatial Plan for Special Purposes for Durmitor.
Future urban development in municipalities within the Park, in particular in Zabljak, should be urgently regulated through adequate plans, considering the rehabilitation of the entire area, in particular, such infrastructures as sewage and waste disposal systems should comply to international environmental standards. The threat rating also takes into account the cumulative impacts of this threat with other similar threats (ski resort development).
The uncontrolled urban development of Zabljak is threatening the landscape, and to a certain extent the biological values of the site. Another exclusion of some areas from the territory of the national park - as currently planned- does not appear an appropiate solution to solve this problem.
Proposed Hydropower Project Buk Bijela (HPBB):
The project, started in 1957 with a project proposal submitted by the Belgrade-based company “Energo projekt”. Despite the designations of the Tara River Basin Biosphere Reserve (1977) and the Durmitor National Park World Heritage site (1980) and the decisions of the World Heritage Committee (1985 and following sessions), the project was reactivated again in 1988 by the Elektoprivreda company of Montenegro and Bosnia. In 1998, a Memorandum was signed with the Montenegro authorities and their counterparts, and in 1999 a financial study was completed. From 2000 to 2002 discussions for a public tender took place and the process was completed on 30 April 2004. The environmental impacts of the HPBB project would directly affect the geological, hydrological, climatic and biological features of the area concerned (Hockings et al., 2008)
The project was stopped under the pressure of the NGOs and of the international communities; however its realization appears still to be possible (WHC 2017; WHC, 2016, UNEP-WCMC 2012).
Regarding the capture of the water from the upper Tara Basin to be used for the Moraca hydroelectricity project, the threat is still present (WHC 2017; WHC, 2016). However the impact for Durmitor would be less significant and not irreversible.
The government of Montenegro has initiated a detailed spatial plan for the area of multipurpose reservoirs on the Moraca River, which has to take into account defined strategic guidelines, in particular the "Full preservation of the entire flow of the river Tara in accordance with the Declaration adopted by the Montenegrin Parliament, which represents a substantial confirmation of the constitutional commitment to the development of Montenegro as the ecological state "(Conservation Measures Partnership, 2013).
A new initiative for border modification appeared recently:
The Public Enterprise for National Parks of Montenegro (PENPMNE), as the administrator of National Parks in Montenegro, referred an initiative to the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism (former Ministry of Tourism and Environment) to exclude some particular parts devastated by illegal construction (Razvrsje, Moticki gaj and Virak) from the National Park Durmitor. It was indicated that the area proposed for exclusion lost its essential natural properties which made it qualify for the protection, so that it was difficult for the PENPMNE to implement measures to preserve, protect and promote the Durmitor NP (Conservation Measures Partnership, 2013).
The Institute for Nature Protection provided a Draft Study to the Ministry of Tourism and Sustainable Development (formerly the Ministry of Spatial Planning and Environment) in September 2010, and an updated Study in November 2011.
The Study includes a proposal for inclusion of certain parts of the wider zone of Komarnica, including: Canyon Nevidio, Grabovica, the forest complex of Dragisnica and Bolja and a proposal for excluding some areas in the zone of Zabljak: Razvrsje, Virak, Moticki gaj, Poscenski area, Poljane, etc (Hockings et al., 2008). The current status of the boundary modification and of the inclusion of other areas is unclear (WHC 2016).
Various recommendations for extension and inclusion of the whole Tara canyon (Hockings et al., 2013) have to date not been followed, though discussions are ongoing as about potential extensions as a compensation for further exclusion of territories around Zabljak (Conservation Measures Partnership, 2013). Buffer zone situation is unclear (R13). The buffer zone zone situation is unclear (WHC, 2016). As of 2016, it was also unclear if and how the State Party had gone ahead with the exclusion of almost 1,200 ha from the property, and to what extent this had been mitigated through the inclusion of other areas (WHC 2016).
|№||Organization/ individuals||Project duration||Brief description of Active Projects|
|Durmitor is part of the project “Protected Areas for Nature and People”, which aims at improved local benefit generation and sharing including with local stakeholders, as well as general improved participation and cooperation in PAs. (http://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/downloads/pa4np_2016_eng_web_version.pdf)|
|2||Green Home NGO||Green Home NGO conducts various activities in the region and is considered a main custodian of Durmitor National Park.|
|3||Parks Dinarides||Data deficient|
|№||Site need title||Brief description of potential site needs||Support needed for following years|
|1||PA Management effectiveness assessment||A standard management effectiveness assessment using either appraisal methods such as METT (WWF 2007) or “Enhancing our Heritage” (Hockings et al. 2008) or a systematic analysis using the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation (CMP 2013) would be a useful basis for further improvement of the management of the site.||
|2||Management plan||Preparation and implementation of a long term (10 years) management plan according to international standards, including a monitoring system enabling adaptive management. Harmonization ofe the designations.||
|3||Stakeholder communication and participation||Establish efficient consulting and scientific advisory bodies in support to the Park administration and improve public participation and communication as well as cooperation with local communities (including through benefit sharing).||
|4||Development of information / education programme||Renovation of the tourism infrastructures (Visitor centre, signs, etc); preparation of maps and information material as well as interpretation and education programmes.||
|5||Capacity building||Creating targeted capacity building programs for continuous staff training (for financial planning, monitoring, species conservation actions, visitor management etc.)||
|1||Conservation Measures Partnership (2013). Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation. Version 3.0 / April 2013. CMP. Accessed on 26 August 2017 at http://cmp-openstandards.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/CMP….|
|2||Hockings, M., R. James, S. Stolton, N. Dudley, V. Mathur, J. Makombo, J. Courrau, J. Parrish (2008). Enhancing our Heritage Toolkit. Assessing management effectiveness of natural World Heritage sites. Paris: UNESCO. 108 pp. Accessed on 25 August 2017 at http://whc.unesco.org/en/series/23/.|
|3||IUCN 2014. World Heritage Outlook: Durmitor National Park, Montenegro. Accessed on 25 August 2017 at http://www.worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/search-sites/-/wdp….|
|4||IUCN 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Accessed on 26 August at http://www.iucnredlist.org/search.|
|5||IUCN Consultation 2017. World Heritage Outlook Consultation form. World Heritage Site: Durmitor national Park. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.|
|6||Sekulić, G., K. Zorica Ivanić and Porej, D. (2017). Protected Areas Benefit Assessment (PA-BAT) in Montenegro. Zagreb: WWF Adria. Accessed on 27 August 2017 at http://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/downloads/pa_bat_repor….|
|7||Srdanović, M. and Pavić, D. (2013). Environmental protection and major ecological problems in the National Park Durmitor. Researches Reviews of the Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management 42/2013: 82-90.|
|8||UNEP-WCMC 2011. Durmitor National Park – Montenegro. UNEP-WCMC World Heritage Information Sheets. Cambridge (UK): UNEP-WCMC. Accessed on 26 August 2017 at https://www.unep-wcmc.org/resources-and-data/world-heritage….|
|9||WHC 2016. Letter to the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipontiary of Montenegro to France. Ref. CLT/HER/WHC/EUR/16/7907.|
|10||WWF (2007). Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool. Reporting Progress at Protected Area Sites. 2nd edition. Gland (Switzerland): WWF.|
|11||World Heritage C entre 2017. The World Heritage List: Durmitor National Park, Montenegro. Documents. Accessed on 25 August 2017 at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/100/documents/.|
|12||World Heritage Centre 2014. Periodic Report, Montenegro - Section II-Durmitor National Park. Accessed on 25 August 2017 at http://whc.unesco.org/archive/periodicreporting/EUR/cycle02….|
|13||World Heritage Committee (2015).Montenegro: Durmitor National Park. Adoption of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value. WHC-15/39.COM/8E.Rev. Paris: World Heritage Centre. Accessed on 25 August 2017 at http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/6407.|