Durmitor National Park

Montenegro
Inscribed in
1980
Criteria
(vii)
(viii)
(x)
Designation
Biosphere reserve

This breathtaking national park was formed by glaciers and is traversed by rivers and underground streams. Along the Tara river canyon, which has the deepest gorges in Europe, the dense pine forests are interspersed with clear lakes and harbour a wide range of endemic flora.
© UNESCO

Summary

2017 Conservation Outlook

Finalised on
09 Nov 2017
Significant concern
The current conservation status of the World Heritage values of Durmitor National Park is of “High Concern” overall. Due to serious financial constraints and lack of personnel, the current management of the site cannot effectively address all present threats, such as illegal logging and growing impact of tourism activities and is also very limited in its capacity to address threats originating from outside the site’s boundaires, such as uncontrolled urban and tourism infrastructure development. Pollution from former mining upstream the Tara River is also of serious concern, as is introduction of non-native fish species and poaching of large fauna. At the same time, there are high concerns regarding potential threats, particularly new hydropower project, which could not be controlled or even mitigated by the park authorities and which could have a much larger and potentially irreversible impact on the sites’ values and integrity.

Current state and trend of VALUES

High Concern
Trend
Deteriorating
Urban development (scattered constructions on large area), skiing area and power lines have had a serious impact on the landscape beauty of the site. Biological values of the site might be affected as well, but are not being monitored systematically. They are threatened by some localized activities (illegal and legal logging, tourism activities in the Tara canyon). However, pollution from former mining upstream the Tara River is of serious concern, as is introduction of non-native fish species. Geological features of the site appear in good condition and stable, but, new hydropower projects represent a high potential threat to the canyon and the underground karst system. Because of the “High Concern” and deteriorating trend of for one of the three values, and the data deficiency of another one, the overall status of the values is assessed as “High Concern”.

Overall THREATS

High Threat
The current threats, including growing urban and tourism infrastructure development, poaching and logging, are serious and also have a serious visual impact on the exceptional natural beauty of the property. The current management does not appear to be able to adequately address these threats. However, these threats are affecting only a small portion of the site. On the other hand, potential threats, particularly the hydropower projects, could have a much larger and irreversible impact on the property’s integrity.

Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT

Serious Concern
Of the 15 management areas assessed, two are of series concern and eight are of some concern, while several others are data deficient. Taken together, this leads to the conclusion that the management is insufficient to protect the integrity of the property, owing to a lack of personnel and financial resources, and particularly field personnel. The legal framework appears adequate, but its enforcement and control of illegal activities are limited by the lack of resources. Education and interpretation programmes are weak, and monitoring as well as research activities are very limited.

Full assessment

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Finalised on
09 Nov 2017

Description of values

Exceptional natural beauty

Criterion
(vii)
Formed by glaciers and traversed by rivers and underground streams, the Park is particularly known for the Tara river canyon, which has the deepest gorges in Europe, as well as for its dense pine forests, interspersed with clear lakes (IUCN Evaluation, 2005).
The River Tara, one of the last wild rivers in Europe, has pure, clear waters, a gorge 1,300 m deep and notable floristic and faunistic diversity. The 16 glacial lakes of the Durmitor and the canyons of the Tara, Susica and Draga rivers were formed during the Quaternary period, following the sudden thaw of the snow and the formation of glaciers on the Durmitor and neighboring mountains. There are numerous impressive examples of weathering processes, rock shapes and land features characteristic of karstic erosion, fluvial erosion and glacial erosion (WHC 2014).

Geological features

Criterion
(viii)
Geologically, Durmitor and Tara canyons are made up of rocky massifs of the Middle and Upper Triassic, Upper Jurassic and Upper Cretaceous, though more recent rocks are also present. The dominant features are limestone, especially the so-called Durmitor Flysch, a set of tectonic layers
layers inclined at an angle of 90 degrees in the Durmitor Massif. There are displays many karst features: rugged peaks, limestone plateaus, deep canyons (such as the Tara gorge, of 60 km length), caves (including Montenegro's deepest cave and subterranean rivers draining some of the glacial lakes), etc. (WHC 2015).

Rare and endemic species

Criterion
(x)
Spanning an altitude range from 450 to 2,500 m, Tthe parkDurmitor National Park supports a rich karstic flora (700 species, with 1,600 existing in the wider area – WHC 2015) with many rare and endemic species. Durmitor, together with the Tara Canyon, represents one of the most important refugium of arcto-tertiary flora, as evidenced by its endemic, relict and endemic-relict species. The endemic flora of Durmitor comprises 175 species which represents 12% of the total of the flora of this massive. To high mountain endemics belong 122 species, which is 77% of the total endemic flora of this massive, and 15 % of the total high mountain flora. The park contains one of the last virgin black pine forests in Europe, on soils that would usually develop beech woodland. The Tara and its tributaries, as well as the lakes, contain a large number of salmonidae, including the globally endangered Danube Salmon (IUCN 2017, UNEP-WCMC 2012). Forest fauna includes Brown Bear, Wolf, Wild Boar, Wild Cat, Chamois, various species of eagles, Capercaillie, Black Grouse and Rock Partridge (WHC, 2015).

Assessment information

High Threat
The current high threats, including growing urban and tourisma infrastructure development, poaching and logging, are serious and also have a serious visual impact on the exceptional natural beauty of the area.
Invasive Non-Native/ Alien Species
Low Threat
Inside site
, Scattered(5-15%)
Outside site
Restocking of the river and lakes with non-native fish species (rainbow trout) (WWF, 2007). Several lakes, not connected with the river system and originally without fish, have been stocked artificially.
Tourism/ Recreation Areas
High Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Construction of ski runs and lifts inside the property (Hockings et al., 2008; World Heritage Centre 2017; WHC, 2016). Jablak is one of the most important ski resorts in Montenegro, easily accessible from Podgorica. A medium-size skiing area has been developed inside the property, including chairlifts and ski run preparation, placing additional inadequately planned growth pressure on the area (Hockings et al., 2008). Pressure for further developments exists. The threat rating also takes into account the cumulative impacts of this threat with other similar threats (urban development).
Mining/ Quarrying
Low Threat
Outside site
A mining area with polluted reservoir is located upstream on Tara (Hockings et al., 2008, UNEP-WCMC 2012). The lead mine tailings and toxic waste disposal are located 32 km upstream of the National Park borders. The lead and zinc processing plant in Mojkovac, was in operation from 1976 to 1991. The flotation of ore was part of the technology. The waste which was stocked in an area of 19 hectares (altogether around 2 million m3) was purified, but after closure of the company, the flotation and other waste devices are no longer functioning. Therefore, the situation today is far more dangerous for the environment and in particular for the Tara River, in comparison to the time when the mine was in operation. Today the waste storage includes: 20% lead, 30-40% zinc, 10% copper, 4-5% pig iron and 10-12% sulphur, with traces of cadmium, antimony and mercury. However, the mine tailings have been solidified through a remediation project so the threat has decreased.
Utility / Service Lines
Data Deficient
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Corridor transmission lines cross the National Parks Lovcen and Durmitor, including and the Tara canyon, posing a threat to rare and endemic avifauna (R20).
The Detailed Spatial Plan (DSP) for the corridor of 400 kV transmission line with the optical cable from the Montenegrin coast to Pljevlja and 500 kV submarine cable with optical cable, Italy - Montenegro, which was adopted by the Government of Montenegro at the meeting of 28 July 2011, includes parts of the Municipalities of Budva, Kotor, Cetinje, Niksic, Pluzine, Savnik, Zabljak and Pljevlja. In order to create a connection between the coast and Pljevlja, it is inevitable for the future corridor to pass through the National Parks of Lovcen and Durmitor (Conservation Measures Partnership, 2013). While existing and planned power lines clearly affect the natural beauty of the area, their detailed impact on avifauna is not clear.
Dams/ Water Management or Use
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Dam on Piva river impact on fish populations (R10). The dam was constructed on the Piva river at the western border of the park. The important artificial variations of the downstream water flow are a major threat for fishes and other aquatic animal and plant species,
although they are localized and not likely to result in significant negative effects on the level of the entire property. Furthermore a very large dam project on the Tara itself with potentially irreversible damages has been discussed since the late 90's (see potential threats).
Hunting (commercial/subsistence)
High Threat
Inside site
, Scattered(5-15%)
Outside site
Poaching of chamois, as well as bears and wolves has been reported (World Heritage Centre 2017; WHC, 2016). Illegal hunting is often mentioned as one of the key threats to the area (e.g. IUCN Consultation, 2017).
Illegal fishing and inadequate fishing policy, including restocking with alien species, is a major threat to the aquatic life of the Tara River and the lakes within the Park (WHC, 2016). Illegal fishing involves use of harpoons with scuba equipment.
Fire/ Fire Suppression
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Fires are a frequent threat particularly to forested parts of Durmitor National Park. They are most common in the canyons of the rivers Tara and Draga. According to the National Park data, the largest fires occurred in Prag near Vaškovo in 2006 and in the reserve Crna Poda (belonging to Protection Zone I) in 2012. More precisely, fires spread in the canyon of Tara across 4,000 hectares of forests and other areas (Sdranovic & Pavic 2013). However, fires appear to be rather localized.
Housing/ Urban Areas
High Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Uncontrolled development of the town of Zabljak, inside and outside the property. The absence of spatial planning or the lack in its enforcement has led to many illegal constructions (mainly holiday houses) scattered especially around the town of Jablak (WHC 2015, IUCN Consultation 2017, Sdranovic & Pavic 2013).
The town of Zabljak with its immediate surroundings have become interesting for investors in the recent years; a large number of holiday homes were built in the protection zone of the national park", often built without any prior plans and adversely affecting the overall image of the space (R8). The government adopted a decision on developing a new Sppatial Plan for Special Purposes for Durmitor.
Future urban development in municipalities within the Park, in particular in Zabljak, should be urgently regulated through adequate plans, considering the rehabilitation of the entire area, in particular, such infrastructures as sewage and waste disposal systems should comply to international environmental standards. The threat rating also takes into account the cumulative impacts of this threat with other similar threats (ski resort development).
Tourism/ visitors/ recreation
Low Threat
Inside site
, Scattered(5-15%)
Outside site
Heavy road traffic and canyoning along the Tara gorges lead to disturbance. The main highway along the Tara river is an important communication road in Montenegro; it gives easy access to some section of the Tara river with risk of pollution and deterioration of the natural beauty of the gorges.
Logging/ Wood Harvesting
High Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Illegal logging inside the park; heavy logging in has been detected old forest at the park borders (IUCN Consultation 2017, WHC 2015, UNEP-WCMC 2012). Repeated concerns about logging of valuable old growth subalpine forests have been expressed. The threat assessment takes into account the fact that these forests constitute one of the key values of the Park.
Very High Threat
There are extremely serious potential threats to the site’s values and integrity. The potential flooding of the Tara canyon due to hydropower projects is the most serious one. There are high risks of pollution and of deep modification of the river Tara as well.
The uncontrolled urban development of Zabljak is threatening the landscape, and to a certain extent the biological values of the site. Another exclusion of some areas from the territory of the national park - as currently planned- does not appear an appropiate solution to solve this problem.
Dams/ Water Management or Use
Very High Threat
Inside site
, Scattered(5-15%)
Outside site
Recurrent threats of dams construction in the Tara canyon in Montenegro or Bosna and Herzegovina with flooding of the major part of the canyon and / or water diversion from the Tara river to Moraca river have been recorded since the mid-80's (Hockings et al., 2008; WHC 2017; WHC, 2016, UNEP-WCMC 2012).
Proposed Hydropower Project Buk Bijela (HPBB):
The project, started in 1957 with a project proposal submitted by the Belgrade-based company “Energo projekt”. Despite the designations of the Tara River Basin Biosphere Reserve (1977) and the Durmitor National Park World Heritage site (1980) and the decisions of the World Heritage Committee (1985 and following sessions), the project was reactivated again in 1988 by the Elektoprivreda company of Montenegro and Bosnia. In 1998, a Memorandum was signed with the Montenegro authorities and their counterparts, and in 1999 a financial study was completed. From 2000 to 2002 discussions for a public tender took place and the process was completed on 30 April 2004. The environmental impacts of the HPBB project would directly affect the geological, hydrological, climatic and biological features of the area concerned (Hockings et al., 2008)
The project was stopped under the pressure of the NGOs and of the international communities; however its realization appears still to be possible (WHC 2017; WHC, 2016, UNEP-WCMC 2012).
Regarding the capture of the water from the upper Tara Basin to be used for the Moraca hydroelectricity project, the threat is still present (WHC 2017; WHC, 2016). However the impact for Durmitor would be less significant and not irreversible.
The government of Montenegro has initiated a detailed spatial plan for the area of multipurpose reservoirs on the Moraca River, which has to take into account defined strategic guidelines, in particular the "Full preservation of the entire flow of the river Tara in accordance with the Declaration adopted by the Montenegrin Parliament, which represents a substantial confirmation of the constitutional commitment to the development of Montenegro as the ecological state "(Conservation Measures Partnership, 2013).
Other
High Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
A first boundary modification was adopted by the WHC in 2005 adjusting the borders to theses of the National Park, thus excluding the Town of Zabljak. A possible extension to include the whole Tara River Canyon as suggested by the 2005 monitoring mission was not considered (Hockings et al., 2008)
A new initiative for border modification appeared recently:
The Public Enterprise for National Parks of Montenegro (PENPMNE), as the administrator of National Parks in Montenegro, referred an initiative to the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism (former Ministry of Tourism and Environment) to exclude some particular parts devastated by illegal construction (Razvrsje, Moticki gaj and Virak) from the National Park Durmitor. It was indicated that the area proposed for exclusion lost its essential natural properties which made it qualify for the protection, so that it was difficult for the PENPMNE to implement measures to preserve, protect and promote the Durmitor NP (Conservation Measures Partnership, 2013).
The Institute for Nature Protection provided a Draft Study to the Ministry of Tourism and Sustainable Development (formerly the Ministry of Spatial Planning and Environment) in September 2010, and an updated Study in November 2011.
The Study includes a proposal for inclusion of certain parts of the wider zone of Komarnica, including: Canyon Nevidio, Grabovica, the forest complex of Dragisnica and Bolja and a proposal for excluding some areas in the zone of Zabljak: Razvrsje, Virak, Moticki gaj, Poscenski area, Poljane, etc (Hockings et al., 2008). The current status of the boundary modification and of the inclusion of other areas is unclear (WHC 2016).
Droughts,
Temperature extremes,
Storms/Flooding
High Threat
Inside site
, Extent of threat not known
Outside site
Climate change could lead to increasing forest fires, threats to habitat of endemic species (IUCN Red List, 2017), and more frequent extreme weather events. Some valuable stands of old pines and location of endemic species in the Tara canyon could be threatened by fire in case of global temperature increases. There might also be other impacts.
The current threats, including growing urban and tourism infrastructure development, poaching and logging, are serious and also have a serious visual impact on the exceptional natural beauty of the property. The current management does not appear to be able to adequately address these threats. However, these threats are affecting only a small portion of the site. On the other hand, potential threats, particularly the hydropower projects, could have a much larger and irreversible impact on the property’s integrity.
Relationships with local people
Some Concern
The State Party has characterized relationships with local stakeholders as “fair”, with “some” local input into management decisions (WHC 2014). However, a lack of involvement of the local people and the civil society into the planning and management has previously been noted.
Legal framework
Effective
Since 1952, the area of the Durmitor region is legally protected as a National Park (UNEP-WCMC 2012). In addition, in 197 the Tara River Canyon was declared a Nature Reserve and Nature Monument (Decree 1/12/1977, Republic Institute of Nature Conservation). This represented the legal basis for the nomination and inscription of the site to the World Heritage List in 1980. The legal basis appears to be sufficient but although it does not address threats originating outside the property and buffer zone (WHC 2014).
Enforcement
Some Concern
According to the recent periodic report (2014), there are clear deficiencies in implementation of the legislation regarding Durmitor National Park (WHC 2014). However, no detailed information on the level and impact of implementation shortcomings is available.
Integration into regional and national planning systems
Data Deficient
Only limited information is available on this aspect: The State Party considered in 2014 that coordination between the range of administrative bodies / levels involved in the management of the property but it could be improved (WHC 2014). Recommendations for extension of the protected area to the West including collaboration with BiH (Hockings et al., 2013) have not been followed upon. The drafting of a new management plan was supposed to be completed by 2012 and would integrate the outcomes of the Strategy for Sustainable Development (Conservation Measures Partnership, 2013). However, it is not clear what the current status of this plan is.
Management system
Data Deficient
In the most recent periodic report (2014), it was stated that “in December 2004, the Management Plan for Durmitor National Park for the years 2015-2020 was adopted "; however, no further information is available. In general, the National Park is managed by the Public Enterprise for National Parks, based in Podgorica. Management is specifically implemented by the National Park Headquarters, located in Zabljak (WHC 2014). The Enterprise carries out activities which involve the function of protecting and improving the national parks. Mechanisms for the protection of the site are carried out through spatial planning documents. The following documents guide the management: a Special Purpose Spatial Plan in accordance with the law; a five-year management plan and the annual management program based on the five-year plan. The Government of Montenegro adopted the Management Plan for the National Park ''Durmitor'' in 2010, for the period 2011-2015. Following the adoption of the Management Plan (2011-2015), "National Parks of Montenegro" (JPNPCG) developed annual management plans (R8). It is not clear if a new (2016-2020) management plan has been drawn up since, and if it has introduced major changes to the management system.
Management effectiveness
Some Concern
No formal management effectiveness assessment for Durmitor National Park is known but management is generally considered as largely deficient by NGOs and experts (WHC 2016 and 2017; IUCN 2014). This is consistent with the observation of the State Party that management is inadequately resourced generally (WHC 2014).
Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations
Effective
World Heritage Committee’s requests have been partially implemented by the State Party. Dam projects were stopped and remain so currently, although there are concerns regarding the future. According to WHC (2017), the Committee has made no decisions or recommendations on this property since 2008.
Boundaries
Some Concern
Boundaries of the site were modified to correspond to the new boundaries of the National Park, which in fact accommodates urban development in the area (Hockings et al., 2013).
Various recommendations for extension and inclusion of the whole Tara canyon (Hockings et al., 2013) have to date not been followed, though discussions are ongoing as about potential extensions as a compensation for further exclusion of territories around Zabljak (Conservation Measures Partnership, 2013). Buffer zone situation is unclear (R13). The buffer zone zone situation is unclear (WHC, 2016). As of 2016, it was also unclear if and how the State Party had gone ahead with the exclusion of almost 1,200 ha from the property, and to what extent this had been mitigated through the inclusion of other areas (WHC 2016).
Sustainable finance
Some Concern
Durmitor National park receives only limited external financing and has to generate its own income (WHC, 2016). According to the Law on National Parks, funding for the Public Enterprise for National Parks of Montenegro, and consequently the Durmitor National park, is provided from the following sources: 1) the State budget, 2) fee for the use of resources, i.e. their own income; 3) donations and, 4) other sources in accordance with the Law. During the 2009-2013 period, the park received 53%, 27%, 12% and 8% of its funding from individual visitor charges, the State budget, operator charges and donations, respectively (WHC, 2014). This funding was considered secure but inadequate. There is a tax on canyoning and some other services, but the generated money becomes the part of the central budget and is not used solely for funding activities of the NP Durmitor.
Staff training and development
Some Concern
The National Park Administration has a director and 40 staff, including 22 rangers; this has been considered below optimum by the State Party (WHC 2014). The availability of qualified staff was considered poor to fair for most specializations in the same document, while the availability of training opportunities was considered low to medium.
Sustainable use
Effective
The State Party acknowledges that “a balance between the needs of legitimate local livelihood and conservation is indispensable” (WHC 2015), but no detailed information on how this is reflected in practical management arrangements is available. Wild food plants and mushrooms were assessed as having minor subsistence value in Durmitor (IUCN Consultation 2017), but water was assessed as an important and significantly used value (Sekulic et al. 2017). Fuel wood logging by locals is reportedly allowed in the core zones of the park (WHC 2014), but it is not clear how this is regulated.
Education and interpretation programs
Some Concern
According to the State Party, “there is a planned education and awareness programme but it only partly meets the needs and could be improved”; the World Heritage status of the property is not adequately presented (WHC 2014).
Tourism and visitation management
Some Concern
The visitor centre, trails and guided tours have been assessed as adequate by the State Party, while a lack of information materials was noted (WHC 2014). Visitor use of the World Heritage property is not being actively managed despite an indentified need, and public information regarding the World Heritage designation is limited (WHC 2014).
Monitoring
Serious Concern
According to the most recent periodic report (2014), there is only a small amount of monitoring, but it is not planned; information on the values of the World Heritage property is sufficient to define key indicators, but this has not been done (WHC 2014). This is in agreement with earlier observations which found that there is no comprehensive monitoring system in place -– only scattered information collection from the NP administration (WHC 2016 and 2017; IUCN 2014).
Research
Some Concern
According to the State Party, there is considerable research but it is not directed towards management needs and / or improving understanding of Outstanding Universal Value; no details about specific research outcomes – such as scientific articles in peer reviewed international journals – have been provided by the State Party (WHC 2014).
Of the 15 management areas assessed, two are of series concern and eight are of some concern, while several others are data deficient. Taken together, this leads to the conclusion that the management is insufficient to protect the integrity of the property, owing to a lack of personnel and financial resources, and particularly field personnel. The legal framework appears adequate, but its enforcement and control of illegal activities are limited by the lack of resources. Education and interpretation programmes are weak, and monitoring as well as research activities are very limited.
Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site
Serious Concern
There is a high risk of water pollution from the upstream mining area; in addition, diversion of water from the Tara river into the Moraca would seriously threaten the integrity of the Park. The waste water treatment and waste management situation in the town of Zabljak are unknown; due to the karstic character of the area they present a serious risk and the capacity of the management to address these threats is very low.
World Heritage values

Exceptional natural beauty

High Concern
Trend
Deteriorating
The spectacular landscape formed by limestone mountains cut by rivers and canyon is suffering from serious impact from constructions (extension of Jablak and holiday homes), infrastructure (power lines, roads), ski resorts and associated infrastructure (Hockings et al. 2008). However, a large part of the site is still largely intact.
Dam construction downstream on the Tara would irreversibly affect the landscape value of the site (Hockings et al. 2008).

Geological features

Low Concern
Trend
Stable
The geological values of the site appear in good condition and stable. However, the dam downstream on the Tara if constructed could irreversibly affect the canyon and the underground karst system (Hockings et al. 2008).

Rare and endemic species

Data Deficient
Trend
Data Deficient
wing to the lack of a systematic monitoring system, the current status of the rare and endemic species of Durmitor National Park is impossible to assess precisely.
Assessment of the current state and trend of World Heritage values
High Concern
Trend
Deteriorating
Urban development (scattered constructions on large area), skiing area and power lines have had a serious impact on the landscape beauty of the site. Biological values of the site might be affected as well, but are not being monitored systematically. They are threatened by some localized activities (illegal and legal logging, tourism activities in the Tara canyon). However, pollution from former mining upstream the Tara River is of serious concern, as is introduction of non-native fish species. Geological features of the site appear in good condition and stable, but, new hydropower projects represent a high potential threat to the canyon and the underground karst system. Because of the “High Concern” and deteriorating trend of for one of the three values, and the data deficiency of another one, the overall status of the values is assessed as “High Concern”.

Additional information

Outdoor recreation and tourism
High potential for sustainable tourism (hiking, nature discovery, rural tourism); already used for canyoning ( including fee collection and control). A need to better realize the potential of the park to provide tourism related benefits has been identified during the IUCN Consultation (2017).
Factors negatively affecting provision of this benefit
Pollution
Impact level - Low
Overexploitation
Impact level - Low
Habitat change
Impact level - Low
Commercial wells
However, this is currently not legally used in the core zone of the park (WHC 2014). Wild food plants and mushrooms were assessed as having minor subsistence value in Durmitor (IUCN Consultation 2017).
Factors negatively affecting provision of this benefit
Pollution
Impact level - Low
Overexploitation
Impact level - Moderate
Habitat change
Impact level - Low
Legal subsistence hunting of wild game
The park is certainly a significant reservoir for game species (chamois, deer) but also for large carnivores (wolf, bear).
Durmitor National Park provides important benefits in terms of watershed production, water regulation and provision, as well as good potential benefits related to sustainable nature-based tourism. The latter need to be developed better. There is also a moderate potential for provisioning ecosystem services, in terms of various forest products.
Organization/ individuals Project duration Brief description of Active Projects
1 WWF Adria From: 2015
To: 2019
Durmitor is part of the project “Protected Areas for Nature and People”, which aims at improved local benefit generation and sharing including with local stakeholders, as well as general improved participation and cooperation in PAs. (http://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/downloads/pa4np_2016_eng_web_version.pdf)
2 Green Home NGO Green Home NGO conducts various activities in the region and is considered a main custodian of Durmitor National Park.
3 Parks Dinarides Data deficient
Site need title Brief description of potential site needs Support needed for following years
1 PA Management effectiveness assessment A standard management effectiveness assessment using either appraisal methods such as METT (WWF 2007) or “Enhancing our Heritage” (Hockings et al. 2008) or a systematic analysis using the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation (CMP 2013) would be a useful basis for further improvement of the management of the site. From: 2018
2 Management plan Preparation and implementation of a long term (10 years) management plan according to international standards, including a monitoring system enabling adaptive management. Harmonization ofe the designations. From: 2018
To: 2020
3 Stakeholder communication and participation Establish efficient consulting and scientific advisory bodies in support to the Park administration and improve public participation and communication as well as cooperation with local communities (including through benefit sharing). From: 2018
To: 2022
4 Development of information / education programme Renovation of the tourism infrastructures (Visitor centre, signs, etc); preparation of maps and information material as well as interpretation and education programmes. From: 2018
To: 2020
5 Capacity building Creating targeted capacity building programs for continuous staff training (for financial planning, monitoring, species conservation actions, visitor management etc.) From: 2018
To: 2022

References

References
1 Conservation Measures Partnership (2013). Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation. Version 3.0 / April 2013. CMP. Accessed on 26 August 2017 at http://cmp-openstandards.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/CMP….
2 Hockings, M., R. James, S. Stolton, N. Dudley, V. Mathur, J. Makombo, J. Courrau, J. Parrish (2008). Enhancing our Heritage Toolkit. Assessing management effectiveness of natural World Heritage sites. Paris: UNESCO. 108 pp. Accessed on 25 August 2017 at http://whc.unesco.org/en/series/23/.
3 IUCN 2014. World Heritage Outlook: Durmitor National Park, Montenegro. Accessed on 25 August 2017 at http://www.worldheritageoutlook.iucn.org/search-sites/-/wdp….
4 IUCN 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Accessed on 26 August at http://www.iucnredlist.org/search.
5 IUCN Consultation 2017. World Heritage Outlook Consultation form. World Heritage Site: Durmitor national Park. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
6 Sekulić, G., K. Zorica Ivanić and Porej, D. (2017). Protected Areas Benefit Assessment (PA-BAT) in Montenegro. Zagreb: WWF Adria. Accessed on 27 August 2017 at http://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/downloads/pa_bat_repor….
7 Srdanović, M. and Pavić, D. (2013). Environmental protection and major ecological problems in the National Park Durmitor. Researches Reviews of the Department of Geography, Tourism and Hotel Management 42/2013: 82-90.
8 UNEP-WCMC 2011. Durmitor National Park – Montenegro. UNEP-WCMC World Heritage Information Sheets. Cambridge (UK): UNEP-WCMC. Accessed on 26 August 2017 at https://www.unep-wcmc.org/resources-and-data/world-heritage….
9 WHC 2016. Letter to the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipontiary of Montenegro to France. Ref. CLT/HER/WHC/EUR/16/7907.
10 WWF (2007). Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool. Reporting Progress at Protected Area Sites. 2nd edition. Gland (Switzerland): WWF.
11 World Heritage C entre 2017. The World Heritage List: Durmitor National Park, Montenegro. Documents. Accessed on 25 August 2017 at http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/100/documents/.
12 World Heritage Centre 2014. Periodic Report, Montenegro - Section II-Durmitor National Park. Accessed on 25 August 2017 at http://whc.unesco.org/archive/periodicreporting/EUR/cycle02….
13 World Heritage Committee (2015).Montenegro: Durmitor National Park. Adoption of retrospective Statements of Outstanding Universal Value. WHC-15/39.COM/8E.Rev. Paris: World Heritage Centre. Accessed on 25 August 2017 at http://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/6407.