Komodo National Park
These volcanic islands are inhabited by a population of around 5,700 giant lizards, whose appearance and aggressive behaviour have led to them being called 'Komodo dragons'. They exist nowhere else in the world and are of great interest to scientists studying the theory of evolution. The rugged hillsides of dry savannah and pockets of thorny green vegetation contrast starkly with the brilliant white sandy beaches and the blue waters surging over coral.
2017 Conservation Outlook
Current state and trend of VALUES
Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT
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Description of values
Superlative natural beauty.
Threatened species habitat, namely for the Komodo Dragon.
Biodiversity levels including marine species.
Implementation of a legal ban on destructive fishing and a weekly marine patrol program has previously resulted in a 90 percent decrease in blast fishing (Subijanto, 2002). However, the effectiveness of enforcement should be further improved to prevent illegal resource use and destructive fishing practices.
According to the UNEP Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Komodo National Park assisted by the Ministry of Forestry have innovative training programs for residents and park staff (UNEP, 2002). Training and assistance programmes were also undertaken through collaborative management and the tourism concession as part of the capacity building component (World Bank, 2001).
|№||Organization/ individuals||Project duration||Brief description of Active Projects|
|1||Yayasan Komodo Kita||Community Development|
|2||Yayasan Baku Peduli||Organic farming, Community Development and Awareness|
|3||Burung Indonesia||BirdLife Partner|
|4||Plasticman Institute||Coastal Clean-up and its sustainability waste management system|
|5||Komodo Survival Program||Komodo Survival Program|
|6||GEF - Global Environment Facility||To: 2011||Komodo National Park Collaborative Management Initiative. The project will experiment with a privatization scheme in park management through a Joint Venture (JV) between the Nature Conservancy (TNC) and a local tourism company (JPU) who will implement a collaborative management strategy based on a 25-year park management plan. The JV will obtain a tourism concession from government to authorize this private sector-NGO partnership to set and collect gate fees, establish and implement tourism carrying capacity limits, and to develop a tourism licensing system. The overall strategy seeks to make Komodo National Park a self-sustaining entity with its management costs being covered by tourism revenue. The project includes substantive positive incentives (a micro-enterprise fund for local family-based business, research and development of sustainable methods of marine resource use, and a community small grants fund) and will enforce negative incentives (regulations and fines) to encourage local communities to switch from the current destructive fishing practices to sustainable livelihoods based on the rational use of park resources. Innovations brought in by this project include: the testing of new park management and financing models; the partnership of an international NGO with a local tourism operator to form a Joint Venture and their use of a collaborative management approach with strong links to local community and private sector stakeholders; and the adoption of an adaptive management approach. The Joint Venture is established as a for-profit company whose revenues will be re-invested in the park.|
|№||Site need title||Brief description of potential site needs||Support needed for following years|
|1||N.A.||Capacity building and development of a reliable resource monitoring system which would provide input into the management decision making process.|
|2||N.A.||Assessment of the effectiveness of education and awareness raising programmes|
|3||N.A.||Capacity building on alternative livelihood methods and management for local community to disengage them from direct extraction of the park resources and provide better income.|
|1||Ampou, E. (2011). Coral bleaching in Indonesia (2009-2010). Retrived 16 June from http://elvanampou.wordpress.com/2011/11/16/coral-bleaching-…|
|2||Ariefiandy, A., Forsyth, D.M., Purwandana, D., Imansyah, J., Ciofi, C., Rudiharto, H., Seno, A., and T.S. Jessop. (2016b). Temporal and spatial dynamics of insular Rusa deer and wild pig populations in Komodo National Park. Journal of Mammalogy, 97(6):1652-1662.|
|3||Ariefiandy, A., Purwamdama, D., Seno, A., Ciofi, C. and Jessop, T.S. (2013). Can Camera Traps Monitor Komodo Dragons a Large Ectothermic Predator? PLoS ONE8(3): e58800. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0058800|
|4||Ariefiandy, A., Purwamdama, D., Seno, A., Chrismiawati, M., Jessop, T.S. and Ciofi, C. (2014). Evaluation of three field monitoring-density estimation protocols and their relevance to Komodo dragon conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 23 (10), 2473-2490.|
|5||Ariefiandy, A., Purwandana, D., Nasu, S.A., Surahman, M., Ciofi, C., and T. Jessop. (2016a). First Record of Komodo Dragon Nesting Activity and Hatchling Emergence from North Flores, Eastern Indonesia. Biawak, 9(1):33-35.|
|6||Beger, M. and Turak E. (2005). A rapid ecological assessment of the reef fishes and scleractinian corals of Komodo National Park, Indonesia in 2005. The Nature Conservancy.|
|7||Erdmann, A.M. (2004). A natural history guide to Komodo National Park. The Nature Conservancy – Indonesia Coastal and Marine Program.|
|8||Gallegos, V.L., Vaahtera, A., and E. Wolfs. (2005). Sustainable Financing for Marine Protected Areas: Lessons from Indonesian MPAs. Case Studies: Komodo and Ujung Kulon National Parks. Environmental and Resource Management . Vol. IV-M. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.|
|9||Habibi A., Setiasih N. and Sartin J. (2007). A decade of reef check monitoring: Indonesian coral reefs, condition and trends. The Indonesian Reef Check Network.|
|10||Harvey, A. and Yusamandra H. (2010). Coral Reefs in and around Komodo National Park: Status Report 2009. Bali: The Nature Conservancy & PT Putri Naga Komodo.|
|11||IUCN (1991). World Heritage Nomination IUCN Technical Review: Komodo National Park. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.|
|12||IUCN (2014). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org|
|13||Kahn, B., James, Y. and Pet J. (2000). Komodo National Park cetacean surveys – a rapid ecological assessment of cetacean diversity, distribution and abundance. Indonesian Journal of Coastal and Marine Resources – Jurnal Pesisir dan Lautan. August 3(2): 41-59.|
|14||Komodo National Park (KNP) (2003). Indonesia, Komodo National Park. Summary of the Periodic Report on the State of Conservation of the World Heritage Properties in the Asia-Pacific Region to the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, Paris|
|15||Komodo National Park. (2005). Available online at: http://www.komodonationalpark.org|
|16||Merkl, A., Claussen, J., Thompson, H., and Winship, J. (2003). Analysis on the Sustainable Financing of a Network of Marine Protected Areas in Southeast Asia. Vth Worlds Park Congress: Sustainable Finance Stream, Durban South Africa, September 2003.|
|17||Ministry of Forestry (MOF) (1990). Nomination of Komodo National Park Indonesia for Inclusion in the World Heritage List. Ministry of Forestry, Government of Indonesia, Jakarta. 25 pp.|
|18||Mous, P. (2002). Komodo National Park. In Burke L.,Selig L. & Spalding M. (eds). Reefs at Risk in Southeast Asia. CD Report. World Resources Institute, Washington USA & UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK.|
|19||Mous, P.J., Halim A., Wiadnya, G., and Subijanto J. (2004). Progress report on The Nature Conservancy’s Komodo marine conservation project – July 2004. Bali: TNC Southeast Asia Center for Marine Protected Areas.|
|20||Mous, P.J., Katherina T., McCorry D. and Pet J.S. (2007). Status of coral reefs in and around Komodo National Park: Results of a bi-annual survey over the period 1996 – 2002, with an update of the status in 2006. The Nature Conservancy.|
|21||Purwamdama, D., Ariefiandy, A., Imansyah, M.J., Rudiharto, H., Seno, A., Ciofi, C., Fordham, D.A. and Jessop, T.S. (2014). Demographic status of Komodo dragons populations in Komodo National Park. Biological Conservation 171, 29-35|
|22||Purwamdama, D., Ariefiandy, A., Imansyah, M.J., Seno, A., Ciofi, C., Letnic, M. and Jessop, T.S. (2016). Ecological allometries and niche use dynamics across Komodo dragon ontogeny. The Science of Nature 103 (3-4)|
|23||SoOUV (2013). Statement of Outstanding Universal Value. 37 COM 8E Paris, France.|
|24||Subijanto, J. (2002). Towards a Sustainable Komodo National Park Management: A 2002 Progress Report. Indonesia. Available online at: http://www.icran.org/sites/doc/KomodoSustainableManagement… ional%20Park%20Financing|
|25||Sumardja, E. A. (2003) Public Sector Support and Management of Protected Areas in Indonesia. Vth World Parks Congress: Sustainable Finance Stream, September 2003. Durban, South Africa. Institutions Session. Institutional Arrangements for Financing Protected Areas. Panel A. Government structures for financing protected area systems. Available online at: http://www.conservationfinance.org/WPC/WPC_documents/Inst_A…|
|26||TNC (The Nature Conservancy). (2005). Collaborative Park Management. Partnerships, Financing and Ecotourism at Komodo National Park. Available online at: http://www.komodonationalpark.org/downloads/ SEACMPA-Co-Management.pdf|
|27||Tun, K. et al. (2004). Status of coral reefs, coral reef monitoring and management in Southeast Asia, 2004. In Wilkinson, C. (ed.) (2004). Status of Coral Reefs of the World. Vol.1. Australian Institute of Marine Science. Pp. 257 & 273.|
|28||UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme) (2002) UNEP Announces New Funding for World Heritage Sites Project. Paves way for launch of International Year of Ecotourism. 24 January 2002. Available online at: http://www.usembassyjakarta.org/press_rel/unep.html|
|29||UNESCO (1997). Biosphere Reserve Information. Indonesia. Komodo. MAB Biosphere Reserves Directory, UNESCO, Paris.|
|30||West, J.M. and Salm R. (2003). Resistance and resilience to coral bleaching: Implications for coral reef conservation and management. Conservation Biology, p 956-967 V 17, No. 4, August 2003.|
|31||World Bank (2001). Office Memorandum from Vidaeus, Lars on the Collaborative Management Initiative Work Program. Available online at: http://www.gefweb.org/Documents/Council_Documents/GEF_C18/I…|