Ujung Kulon National Park

Indonesia
Inscribed in
1991
Criteria
(vii)
(x)

This national park, located in the extreme south-western tip of Java on the Sunda shelf, includes the Ujung Kulon peninsula and several offshore islands and encompasses the natural reserve of Krakatoa. In addition to its natural beauty and geological interest – particularly for the study of inland volcanoes – it contains the largest remaining area of lowland rainforests in the Java plain. Several species of endangered plants and animals can be found there, the Javan rhinoceros being the most seriously under threat. © UNESCO

Summary

2017 Conservation Outlook

Finalised on
09 Nov 2017
Good with some concerns
The values for which Ujung Kulon National Park was inscribed on the World Heritage List are all still present, and most of them are in good condition. Management is considered to be mostly effective, and has for at least the past two decades succeeded in completely averting rhino poaching. However, the current situation of the Javan Rhino as a species is considered to be critical, and urgent and significant management intervention is required to ensure that its population is able to grow, including through the establishment of a second population elsewhere in its historic range. Nevertheless, Ujung Kulon remains a stronghold and the only hope for the survival of this species, which is being well-protected. The main threat to the rhino is the overabundance of the palm Arenga obtusifolia. So far, no attempts have been made to control this species on a large scale, due to a lack of appropriate methods and funding. Experiments to eradicate Arenga in the Javan Rhino Study and Conservation Area (JRSCA) are starting to show positive results. The extent to which Arenga obtusifolia represents a threat to Ujung Kulon's other World Heritage values is uncertain, but impacts so far appear to have been limited.

Current state and trend of VALUES

Low Concern
Trend
Stable
In general terms the current state of conservation of the values of Ujung Kulon National Park appears to be of low concern, although insufficient data is available to assess to what extent these values may have been affected by the overabundance of the palm Arenga obtusifolia. What is evident is that the Javan Rhino population, although still breeding, appears to have reached the carrying capacity of its current habitat. Urgent action is required to increase the amount of habitat available to the rhino to allow its population to grow. The recent creation of the Javan Rhino Study and Conservation Area (JRSCA) is starting to show positive results in that regard, and it is hoped that the experiences gained there will be replicable in the entire national park. The establishment of a second Javan rhino population elsewhere in its former range remains a high priority.

Overall THREATS

High Threat
It has to be emphasized that encroachment and other illegal activities do not currently appear to be having a significant impact on the Outstanding Universal Value of the site. Nevertheless, overall threats are considered to be “High”, given the significant threat from the overabundance of Arenga obtusifolia.

Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT

Effective
Overall, the protection and management of Ujung Kulon National Park is considered to be effective. Intensive monitoring by highly motivated Rhino Protection Units ensures that illegal activities remain largely under control. Despite occasional conflicts, the overall relationship between park management and local people is considered to be good.

Full assessment

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Finalised on
09 Nov 2017

Description of values

Most extensive lowland rainforest remaining on Java

Criterion
(x)
Ujung Kulon National Park contains the most extensive remaining lowland rainforest on the island of Java, a habitat type that has virtually disappeared elsewhere on the island and is under severe pressure elsewhere in Indonesia and Southeast Asia (SOUV, 2014).

Critical habitat for threatened animal species

Criterion
(x)
The site provides invaluable habitat critical for the survival of a number of rare and threatened animal species. In addition to Javan Rhinoceros, the site is home to 29 other species of mammals, including the Critically Endangered Javan Leopard (Panthera pardus melas), the Endangered Banteng (Bos javanicus), Dhole (Cuon alpinus) and Fishing Cat (Prionailurus viverrinus), and three endemic primate species: the Endangered Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch) and Javan Surili (Presbytis comata) and the Vulnerable Javan Lutung (Trachypitecus auratus). Among amphibians and reptiles are numerous frogs and toads, as well as two species of python and two species of crocodile, the Vulnerable False Gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii) and the Salt-water Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus). Over 270 species of birds have been recorded for the park (SOUV, 2014).

Critical habitat for rare plant species

Criterion
(x)
Ujung Kulon is floristically diverse, with 10 distinct plant community groups comprising 39 different plant communities (Hommel, 1987). 57 species of rare plants have been recorded in the park (SOUV, 2014).

Landscape of exceptional beauty

Criterion
(vii)
Krakatau is one of the natural world’s best-known examples of recent island volcanism. The physical feature of Krakatau Island combined with the surrounding sea, natural vegetation, succession of vegetation and volcanic activities combine to form a landscape of exceptional beauty (SOUV, 2014).

Stronghold for Javan Rhinoceros

Criterion
(x)
The site is home to the last remaining population of Javan or Lesser One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) in the world, numbering between 35 and 44 animals (SOUV, 2014; International Rhino Foundation, 2014). No Javan Rhinos exist in captivity anywhere. With the extinction of the Vietnamese subspecies in 2010, Ujung Kulon is the last remaining hope for the survival of the species.

Assessment information

High Threat
The threat from encroachment and other illegal activities is relatively low, although the impact of poaching on birds has not been quantified. The most significant current threat to the site is the overabundance of Arenga obtusifolia, which results in reduced availability and diversity of habitats for threatened species. Javan Rhino is particularly sensitive to this threat. The rhino population in Ujung Kulon has been very small for many generations, and has been isolated for at least 80 years, which may be causing a lower than normal reproductive success rate as a result of inbreeding depression. The threat to the marine portion of the site from destructive fishing methods and other illegal fishing is not insignificant.
Mining/ Quarrying
Data Deficient
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
There is a demand for high quality sand from Anak Krakatau, to be used as construction material. Anak Krakatau is easily accessible by sea, making it difficult to control sand exploitation (Ramono, pers. comm. 2014). The current level of impact from this activity is unclear.
Fishing / Harvesting Aquatic Resources
High Threat
Inside site
, Scattered(5-15%)
Outside site
Dynamite fishing and other unsustainable fishing methods disturb the integrity of healthy coral reefs and the marine ecosystem (Ramono, pers. comm. 2014). Fishing is permitted close outside the boundaries of the park, but illegal fishing occurs in the marine portion of Ujung Kulon National Park.
Fishing / Harvesting Aquatic Resources,
Hunting (commercial/subsistence),
Poaching
Low Threat
Inside site
, Scattered(5-15%)
Outside site
According to Sadjudin (1999), many of the 270 bird species found in Ujung Kulon have a high market value. Bird poaching is therefore a common practice in the park. Other species targeted by poachers may include small mammals and Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas). Illegal shrimp fishing is also practiced (Konstant, pers. comm. 2014). These illegal activities can be controlled by intensive patrols and alternative livelihood provided to the surrounding communities (Ramono, pers. comm. 2014). There have been no incidents of rhino poaching in Ujung Kulon for at least 22 years.
Housing/ Urban Areas
Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
The Honje Mountains, which form the mainland portion of Ujung Kulon National Park and which are connected to the peninsula by a narrow isthmus, are fully surrounded by 19 villages, each consisting of a number of kampongs. While the villages and their agricultural fields are mostly located outside the boundaries of the site, two kampongs (including their agricultural fields) are partially or completely located within the boundaries, namely Ciakar and Legon Pakis, respectively (Van Merm, 2008). The rate of encroachment is relatively low, but has grown from 400 hectares in 1990 to 3436 hectares in 2008. This trend could be halted with the development of the Javan Rhino Study and Conservation Area (JRSCA) since 2010-2011 (Ramono, pers. comm. 2014).
Hyper-Abundant Species
Very High Threat
Inside site
, Throughout(>50%)
Arenga obtusifolia, locally known as Langkap, is a native palm species that is overabundant in Ujung Kulon National Park. In 2007 it was estimated that Langkap covers around 60% of the Ujung Kulon Peninsula (Ministry of Forestry, 2007), and it is likely to have spread further since. It out-competes most other plants by forming a dense canopy where very little light penetrates, and is a significant threat to the Javan Rhino by reducing the availability of habitat and food plants (Van Merm, 2007). It is also likely to have a significant impact on the habitat of other species of animals and plants. Experiments are currently being undertaken to remove stands of Langkap and stimulate regeneration of Rhino food plants. According to the 2014 IUCN World Heritage Outlook, these activities were restricted to a number of sample plots within the Javan Rhino Study and Conservation Area (JRSCA), and were starting to show positive results (Konstant, pers. comm. 2014). If proven successful, urgent action should be taken to replicate these methods throughout the national park in order to control the spread of Langkap. It is unclear how much progress has been made in this regard since 2014.
High Threat
The biggest potential threat stems from the high volcanic activity of Anak Krakatau, which is included in the boundaries of Ujung Kulon National Park World Heritage Site, and indeed a part of its Outstanding Universal Value. Although the likelihood of a cataclysmic event such as the one of 1883 is relatively small, even a tsunami resulting from a smaller eruption could cause widespread destruction in the low lying areas of Ujung Kulon, and have a catastrophic impact on the Javan Rhino.
Volcanoes,
Earthquakes/ Tsunamis
High Threat
Inside site
Outside site
Although the Krakatau Islands are part of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of Ujung Kulon National Park, as one of the world’s best-known examples of recent island volcanism, the continued high level of activity of Anak Krakatau is also a threat to the values of the site. The famous eruption of 1883 caused a tsunami with a height of 15 metres, which destroyed the old growth forests along the flat beaches of the Ujung Kulon peninsula (Hoogerwerf, 1970). Explosive magmatic (strombolian) eruptions of Anak Krakatau have occurred regularly between 2007 and 2011, with the largest recent eruption recorded on 2 September 2012, when the ash cloud reached a height of 1000 metres (PVMBG , 10 May 2014). While the likelihood of another cataclysmic event such as the one in 1883 is relatively low, even a tsunami from a smaller eruption could have a devastating impact on the low lying parts of Ujung Kulon, and could be disastrous for the Javan Rhino.
Mining/ Quarrying
Low Threat
Outside site
Gold mining occurs outside the site (Ramono, pers. comm. 2014), very close to its north-eastern boundary. No information is available regarding the current impact from this activity on the OUV of the site, and these appear to be limited. However, potential direct (loss of forest cover, contamination of ground water) and indirect (increased risk of poaching, illegal logging, etc.) impacts should be carefully monitored.
Roads/ Railroads
Low Threat
Outside site
Road development outside the national park has facilitated access to nearby areas. This increases the risk of illegal activities such as encroachment and illegal logging. On the other hand, these roads facilitate the transport of agricultural products, thus increasing revenue for farmers (Ramono, pers. comm. 2014), and reducing local communities’ dependence on the park for their livelihoods.
It has to be emphasized that encroachment and other illegal activities do not currently appear to be having a significant impact on the Outstanding Universal Value of the site. Nevertheless, overall threats are considered to be “High”, given the significant threat from the overabundance of Arenga obtusifolia.
Relationships with local people
Effective
The Indonesian Rhino Foundation (YABI) has a strong cooperation with the Park Management Authority, and ensures intensive patrolling by Rhino Protection Units (RPUs). These RPUs consist of one Park Ranger and otherwise entirely of local people (Konstant, pers. comm. 2014), who are therefore closely involved in the management of the park. On the other hand, in some instances there may be occasional conflict between local people and Park Management, particularly in the enclave kampongs of Legon Pakis and Ciakar (Van Merm, 2008). Overall the relationship with local people may be considered to be mostly effective.
Legal framework
Effective
The Indonesian laws protecting the site are technically sound.
Enforcement
Highly Effective
Low incidences of encroachment and illegal logging suggest that law enforcement is generally effective. Rhino Protection Units have law enforcement powers as long as they are accompanied by a Park Ranger (Konstant, pers. comm., 2014). The absence of any rhino poaching incidents in the last two decades, and the relatively low threat from encroachment and other illegal activities indicate that law enforcement is effective.
Integration into regional and national planning systems
Effective
Ujung Kulon National Park and the Krakatau islands fall within different provinces (Banten and Lampung, respectively), however both parts are being managed well (Ramono, pers. comm. 2014). Ujung Kulon National Park, and the Javan Rhino specifically, are included in the national Strategy and Action Plan for the Conservation of Rhinos in Indonesia 2007-2017 (Ministry of Forestry, 2007). Ujung Kulon National Park is a National Strategic Area on the basis of its environmental importance (www.ujungkulon.org, accessed 23 September 2014).
Management system
Highly Effective
A long-term management plan (2001-2020) is in place, which aims to establish Ujung Kulon as a sustainable and beneficial national park through the realization of five management objectives, including improvement of local community welfare; development of ecotourism; protection of flora, fauna, ecosystems and cultural sites; scientific, technical and educational development; and sustainable use of biodiversity. Five inter-related management programmes are in place to achieve these objectives, i.e. Integrated Javan Rhino Management, Primates Management, Marine Management, Buffer Zone Management, and Ecotourism Management (UNEP-WCMC, 1991, updated 2011; www.ujungkulon.org, accessed 24 September 2014).
Management effectiveness
Effective
Although no Management Effectiveness Evaluation appears to be available for Ujung Kulon National Park, its management is said to be mostly effective (Ramono, pers. comm. 2014), and the positive assessment of most of the other Protection and Management topics here tends to support that statement. On the other hand, many of the objectives of the Strategy and Action Plan for the Conservation of Rhinos in Indonesia 2007-2017 remain yet to be met.
Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations
Data Deficient
The State of Conservation of Ujung Kulon National Park has never been examined by the Committee, hence no decisions or recommendations were made by the Committee in that regard.
Boundaries
Some Concern
The boundaries of the site are mostly appropriate. However, at Legon Pakis and Ciakar there is some dispute about the boundaries. When the status of the Honje Mountains was upgraded from a production forest to a Nature Reserve in 1967, the change of status caused the existing kampong of Legon Pakis to become an illegal enclave, which sometimes results in conflict between the villagers and park management (Van Merm, 2008).
Sustainable finance
Effective
The main source of funding is central government, which collects revenue from entry fees (UNEP-WCMC, 1991, updated 2011). Entry fees range from Rp. 5,000.- (USD 0.42) to Rp. 225,000.- (USD 18.77) per person per day for Indonesian nationals and foreigners respectively, and additional fees are paid for different activities, such as research and tourist activities (www.ujungkulon.org, accessed 24 September 2014). In addition, Park Management has established a number of partnerships for the implementation of management activities, including with WWF, the Indonesian Rhino Foundation (YABI), RARE/UNESCO, and others (a full list of partners is available on www.ujungkulon.org).
Staff training and development
Highly Effective
Rhino Protection Units receive specific training for the job, and may occasionally benefit from development opportunities such as study trips to other parts of Indonesia (Sumatra) or the world (India). The level of motivation of RPUs is very high.
Sustainable use
Effective
A Public Use Planning programme is in place to manage the use of the park and its resources, be it for subsistence or commercial purposes, to ensure that it is sustainable. Among other objectives, the Public Use Plan aims to develop local economies through ecotourism, while ensuring that visitor impacts remain within the Limits of Acceptable Change (www.ujungkulon.org, accessed 24 September 2014).
Education and interpretation programs
Effective
The national park and its conservation value, in particular the Javan rhino, feature prominently in local primary schools (Van Merm, pers. obs. 2008). Some educational/interpretation material is also available at Park Headquarters in Labuan.
Tourism and visitation management
Effective
There is a Visitor Centre at the Park Headquarters in Labuan, which provides some information about the park’s iconic species. However, not all visitors to the park will pass Labuan, as visitor permits can also be obtained at the accommodation facilities on Handeuleum and Peucang islands. In addition to the accommodation provided on these islands, visitors also have the option to stay in home stays in the surrounding villages. Some local people are directly involved in ecotourism by working as guides and porters, and a variety of activities is provided by the local ecotourism organisation Kagum in Ujung Jaya (Van Merm, 2008). Park Management, in partnership with PT. Fordiso, has developed the smartphone application “TNUKpedia”, which has been especially developed to provide information on various topics and ecotourism objects (www.ujungkulon.org, accessed 23 September 2014). While the application (currently only available in Indonesian) is still limited in the information it provides, it represents an innovative approach to presenting park information to visitors.
Monitoring
Effective
Intensive day-to-day monitoring is provided by the Rhino Protection Units. In addition to signs or direct sightings of rhinos, the RPUs also record sightings of Banteng, as well as instances of illegal activities encountered and/or investigated (Konstant, pers. comm. 2014). On average, RPUs spend 14-22 days per month on patrol. In addition to this day-to-day monitoring, WWF and the International Rhino Foundation manage a network of camera traps, which provides valuable data about the rhino population, as well as other species.
Research
Effective
Much research has been conducted on Javan Rhinoceros, Banteng, and the avifauna, marine resources and landscape ecology of Ujung Kulon. Other research has focused on orchids, anthropology, mangroves, deer and monitor lizard, and rattan. The Krakatau islands have also been the subject of much research, particularly their recolonization by plants and animals (UNEP-WCMC, 1991, updated 2011).
Overall, the protection and management of Ujung Kulon National Park is considered to be effective. Intensive monitoring by highly motivated Rhino Protection Units ensures that illegal activities remain largely under control. Despite occasional conflicts, the overall relationship between park management and local people is considered to be good.
Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site
Effective
Ujung Kulon National Park is an isolated protected area in a rural landscape. Outside threats relate to mining and a growing human population. There is currently no evidence that the mining activities close to the boundary of the national park are having a negative impact on its values, although more research and monitoring is required to confirm that. Low incidences of encroachment and other illegal activities indicate that potential threats from a growing human population are being effectively managed.
Best practice examples
Intensive protection and monitoring by Rhino Protection Units, as well as engagement with local communities and awareness-raising campaigns, have resulted in zero rhino poaching for the past two decades.
The smartphone application TNUKpedia represents an innovative approach to presenting park information to visitors and is the first such application available for any national park in Indonesia.
World Heritage values

Most extensive lowland rainforest remaining on Java

Low Concern
Trend
Stable
Lowland rainforests in South-east Asia are a highly threatened ecosystem due to conversion to agricultural land and commercial plantations. In contrast, the lowland rainforests of Ujung Kulon remain generally in a good condition, and are barely impacted by encroachment and illegal logging. The main concern is the overabundance of Arenga obtusifolia palm, which out-competes most other plants, and causes habitat degradation. In 2007, this palm was reported to be established in 60 percent of the peninsula (Ministry of Forestry, 2007), and it is likely that this figure has increased since. Given that Arenga is native to the area, it has been hypothesized that the natural succession process in Ujung Kulon may end with a consociation of Arenga (Yayasan Mitra Rhino et al., 2004).

Critical habitat for threatened animal species

Low Concern
Trend
Stable
Other than for the rhino, there is not much information readily available on the population sizes and trends of Ujung Kulon’s other species. According to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (www.iucnredlist.org, consulted on 25 September 2014), the Banteng population in Ujung Kulon is between 500 and 800 animals – the largest population on Java and possibly in the world. Poaching (mainly of birds) may be a threat to some species, but is generally considered to have a low impact (Konstant, pers. comm. 2014). The overabundance of Arenga, which has an impact on the rhino, may also be having an impact on other species, but there is currently insufficient data available to quantify any such impact.

Critical habitat for rare plant species

Data Deficient
Trend
Data Deficient
There is insufficient data available to assess the status of rare plant species in Ujung Kulon, and whether the overabundance of Arenga is having an impact on these species.

Landscape of exceptional beauty

Low Concern
Trend
Stable
There is no evidence of any of the elements that contribute to the outstanding natural beauty of the landscape having been lost or significantly deteriorated, although coral reefs may have been impacted by destructive fishing methods.

Stronghold for Javan Rhinoceros

High Concern
Trend
Stable
When censuses started in 1967, the rhino population was estimated at 25 animals. By 1983 the population had reached 58 – 69 animals, but this growth was not sustained and the population has been estimated at 40-50 animals for decades. However, the most recent camera trap data indicate that there are now between 58 and 61 rhinos (International Rhino Foundation, website accessed 26 September 2017), which is an improvement from the previous estimate of 35 to 44 rhinos reported in the 2014 IUCN World Heritage Outlook. According to the International Rhino Foundation (www.rhinos.org, accessed 17 September 2014), available evidence suggests that only 4 to 5 females are still breeding, and it is believed that the rhino population has reached the carrying capacity of its current habitat (Setiawan et al., 2017), and that it cannot grow any larger without intervention. In response to this concern, the International Rhino Foundation, through its implementing partner YABI and with the support of other partners, has created the 4,000 ha Javan Rhino Study and Conservation Area (JRSCA) in the south-western Gunung Honje area, with among others the objective to expand the rhino habitat through intensive habitat management. Control of Arenga palm (Langkap) in JRSCA has significantly increased visitation by rhinos to feed on the young browse plants that have shown good recolonization within one year of clearing sample plots of Arenga (Ramono and Konstant, pers. comm. 2014). The establishment of a second population within its former range in Indonesia has been a long-standing priority for Javan rhino conservation, and continues to be urgent. While the situation of the Javan rhino as a species remains critical, it is well-protected in Ujung Kulon National Park.
Assessment of the current state and trend of World Heritage values
Low Concern
Trend
Stable
In general terms the current state of conservation of the values of Ujung Kulon National Park appears to be of low concern, although insufficient data is available to assess to what extent these values may have been affected by the overabundance of the palm Arenga obtusifolia. What is evident is that the Javan Rhino population, although still breeding, appears to have reached the carrying capacity of its current habitat. Urgent action is required to increase the amount of habitat available to the rhino to allow its population to grow. The recent creation of the Javan Rhino Study and Conservation Area (JRSCA) is starting to show positive results in that regard, and it is hoped that the experiences gained there will be replicable in the entire national park. The establishment of a second Javan rhino population elsewhere in its former range remains a high priority.

Additional information

Fishing areas and conservation of fish stocks
Legal fishing outside the boundaries of the site is an important source of income for some of the surrounding communities.
Access to drinking water
Local communities depend on water from the site for domestic use (drinking, cooking, washing), and for subsistence agriculture.
History and tradition,
Wilderness and iconic features
There is a Ganesha statue at the summit of Mount Raksa on Panaitan Island, dating from the 1st century AD. Other sacred/spiritual sites include Sanghyang Sirah Cave at the extreme western tip of the Ujung Kulon Peninsula.
Sacred natural sites or landscapes
The iconic Krakatau Islands are included in the site. The 1883 eruption of Krakatau is world famous, and was the loudest explosion in recorded history. Half of the island of Krakatau was blown away in the explosion. A new island, Anak Krakatau (the Child of Krakatau), emerged from the waves in August 1930, and has been growing at an average rate of 6.8 meters per year since the 1950s.
Outdoor recreation and tourism
Panaitan Island is a well known spot for surfers the world over, and other forms of tourism represent a source of income for local communities. The local ecotourism organization Kagum offers a range of tourist activities.
Importance for research,
Contribution to education,
Collection of genetic material
The site is a natural laboratory for geology, biology and evolution, and features prominently in local primary schools. Much research has been done in the site (see section "Research" in the assessment of "Protection and Management"), and Anak Krakatau is subject to many studies by volcanologists the world over.
Carbon sequestration,
Soil stabilisation,
Coastal protection,
Flood prevention,
Water provision (importance for water quantity and quality),
Pollination
These benefits can reasonably be assumed to all be present, but detailed information to quantify these benefits is not available.
Data deficient
The site is of major importance for nature conservation, as it protects the largest remaining lowland rainforest on Java, as well as many endangered species, including three endemic primates, and the entire global population of Javan Rhinoceros. Its protection provides jobs to local people (patrolling, tourism), and local communities depend on the site for their livelihoods (use of water, important fish spawning area, etc...).
Organization/ individuals Project duration Brief description of Active Projects
1 Local district authorities Community development
2 WWF Indonesia Community development, camera trapping, habitat studies
3 Aksi Konservasi Badak Jawa Water pipeline project to supply water to Cegog village.
4 YABI, International Rhino Foundation (IRF) Javan Rhino Study and Conservation Area
5 Yayasan Badak Indonesia (YABI) Rhino Protection Units, rhino conservation and genetic studies, habitat management
Site need title Brief description of potential site needs Support needed for following years
1 Government of Indonesia, YABI, IRF Identify and secure a second habitat for translocation of Javan Rhinos.
2 Park Management, YABI, WWF Rhino habitat management throughout the Ujung Kulon Peninsula and Mount Honje, particularly focussed on control of Arenga obtusifolia and restoration of degraded habitat.

References

References
1 www.ujungkulon.org. Accessed September 2014.
2 Hommel, P.W.F.M., 1987. Landscape-ecology of Ujung Kulon (West Java, Indonesia). Privately published. Soil Survey Institute, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
3 Hoogerwerf, A., 1970. Udjung Kulon, the land of the last Javan rhinoceros. Published by E.J. Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands.
4 International Rhino Foundation. www.rhinos.org. Accessed September 2014.
5 Konstant, B., 2014. Personal communication. Program Officer at International Rhino Foundation.
6 Ministry of Forestry, Directorate General for Forest Protection and Nature Conservation, 2007. Strategy and Action Plan for the Conservation of Rhinos in Indonesia 2007-2017. Rhino Century Programme. Government of the Republic of Indonesia.
7 Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Badan Geologi, 10 May 2014. http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/index.php/gunungapi/aktivitas-gun…. Accessed 17.09.2014. Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Government of the Republic of Indoneisa.
8 Ramono, W.S., 2014. Personal communication. Executive Director at Yayasan Badak Indonesia.
9 Sadjudin, H.R., 1999. Rhino Monitoring and Protection Unit (RMPU) Balai Taman Nasional Ujung Kulon: Laporan Hasil Pelatihan, Analisa Data dan Evaluasi Kegiatan, Oktober 1998 s/d April 1999.
10 Setiawan, R., B.D. Gerber, U. M. Rahmat, D. Daryan, A. Y. Firdaus, M. Haryono, K. O. Khairani, Y. Kurniawan, B. Long, A. Lyet, M. Muhiban, R. Mahmud, A. Muhtarom, E. Purastuti, W. S. Ramono, D. Subrata, and S. Sunarto, 2017. Preventing Global Extinction of the Javan Rhino: Tsunami Risk and Future Conservation Direction. Conservation Letters, April 2017, 00(0), 1-9
11 UNEP-WCMC, 1991. Ujung Kulon National Park, Indonesia. World Heritage Information Sheet. Updated 10-1995,11-1996 7-1997, 2-2005, May 2011.
12 Ujung Kulon National Park Statement of Outstanding Universal Value. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/608. Accessed September 2014.
13 Van Merm, R., 2007. The stagnation of the Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) population in Ujung Kulon National Park. Bachelor thesis for forest- and nature conservation (NCP-80806), Wageningen University.
14 Van Merm, R., 2008. Ecological and Social Aspects of Reintroducing Megafauna. A case study on the suitability of the Honje Mountains as a release site for Javan rhinoceros Rhinoceros sondaicus. Master thesis, Saxion Universities of Applied Sciences, University of Greenwich.
15 Yayasan Badak Indonesia, 2014. Rhino Protection Unit Cumulative Report, January 2010 - June 2014. Unpublished.
16 Yayasan Mitra Rhino, WWF, IPB, and Ujung Kulon National Park, 2004. Teknik implementasi pengelolaan habitat untuk menekan laju invasi langkap (Arenga obtusifolia) di Taman Nasional Ujung Kulon provinsi Banten.