Monte San Giorgio

Italy,
Switzerland
Inscribed in
2003
Criterion
(viii)

The pyramid-shaped, wooded mountain of Monte San Giorgio beside Lake Lugano is regarded as the best fossil record of marine life from the Triassic Period (245–230 million years ago). The sequence records life in a tropical lagoon environment, sheltered and partially separated from the open sea by an offshore reef. Diverse marine life flourished within this lagoon, including reptiles, fish, bivalves, ammonites, echinoderms and crustaceans. Because the lagoon was near land, the remains also include land-based fossils of reptiles, insects and plants, resulting in an extremely rich source of fossils.
© UNESCO

Summary

2017 Conservation Outlook

Finalised on
09 Nov 2017
Good
Monte San Giorgio, which encompasses the best known record of Middle Triassic marine life, has a good conservation outlook. This reflects the highly effective protection and management system which manages collecting through permits focused on coordinated research excavations and associated programmes. Currently there is no evidence of unauthorized collecting or negative impact form visitors on this relatively remote wooded mountain area. Development of a monitoring system for the site will help better understand and identify long term changes to the site. The requested and needed review of the Transnational Management Plan will give the chance to discuss and find the way to implement and find a more effective transnational organisation and collaboration.

Current state and trend of VALUES

Good
Trend
Stable
Monte San Giorgio continues to provide an exceptional resource for understanding the geological history and the evolution of life through the Middle Triassic Period. There is currently no evidence of damage to the sites fossil resource. Collecting is carefully and appropriately managed through a permit system. Over the last five years there has been a considerable research output as a result of coordinated research excavations and there is an on-going programme of site investigation and the development of interpretative facilities and initiatives. The site is therefore considered in a good state and stable.

Overall THREATS

Very Low Threat
Current threats throughout are considered very low and there is no evidence of damage. The need to carefully manage visitors is recognized within the management plan. The site is relatively isolated reducing overall threat from collecting and is appropriately managed through a permit system. There is a strong local awareness of the importance of Monte San Giorgio which also helps the overall monitoring of the site and the presence of volunteers and local museums is also considered a deterrent to unauthorized collecting.

Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT

Effective
The protection and management of Monte San Giorgio is overall effective. There is cooperation between the Swiss and Italian components of the site at national, regional and local levels in both countries. There is overall commitment from local and regional government to the successful delivery of the management plan and awareness that it has to be reviewed. The Transnational Board encountered some difficulties to operate in a regular and effective way. The funding regime for the Italian component, however, does not always seem clearly established, particularly as far as the development of long-term sustained financial resources is concerned. Facilitation of site excavations has supported a considerable research output, the on-going research programme adding to the overall universal value of the site.

Full assessment

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Finalised on
09 Nov 2017

Description of values

Exceptional record of marine life from the Triassic Period and important remains of life on land

Criterion
(viii)
Monte San Giorgio is the single best known record of marine life in the Triassic Period, and records important remains of life on land as well. The property has produced diverse and numerous fossils, many of which show exceptional completeness and detailed preservation. The long history of study of the property and the disciplined management of the resource have produced a well documented and catalogued body of specimens of exceptional quality, and are the basis for a rich associated geological literature. As a result Mon San Giorgio provides the principle point of reference, relevant to future discoveries of marine Triassic remains throughout the world (SoOUV, 2010).
Sub-Mediterranean type ecosystem supporting both alkaline and acidic woodland and associated fauna and flora.
There is a strong and notable relationship between the underlying geology and morphology of the area and habitat type. FLORA: Acidic soils (rhyolites) on northern slopes support stands of sweet chestnut, oak and ash. The lime-rich soils (dolomites and limestones) on the more southerly slopes support mixed broad leaf woodlands reflecting variation in aspect and micro-climate, most notably thickets of warm-loving sub-Mediterranean trees. In the Ticino Canton the dry limestone sub-soils also support a number of dry meadows with associated plant populations unique to the Italian southern-Alpine zone. FAUNA: Monte San Giorgio (including the surrounding lakes) has 109 recorded vertebrate species including 37 Red List species. Monte San Giorgio is the only known habitat for Savi's’ pine vole in Switzerland and the lesser horseshoe bat has also been recorded. The area is especially important for breeding reptiles and amphibians with six listed sites of national importance. Invertebrates are less well documented and include 53 mollusc species (including 18 Red Data listed) and 63 species of day-flying butterflies and moths (1/3 of species recorded in Switzerland). The dry south facing slopes of the Ticino meadows have a diverse ground beetle, cricket and grasshopper and spider fauna, a number of which are found only within this region of Switzerland. The area also exhibits a number of karst features in the Triassic limestones and dolomites including some 30 caves, often deep, where cave dwelling populations of crustaceans and millipedes are found. A large crayfish population leaving in the Gaggiolo are unique (Nomination document, 2002). Lastly the Monte San Giorgio area is considered as a ‘mycological sanctuary’. 554 species (in 2002) have been noted, 130 of which are limited to this area of Ticino and 5 are limited in Switzerland to Meride (in 2008 this list was enlarged to comprise 1051 species; Riva, Maggiori & Panzini 2008). This summary is based on data available as part of the Swiss nomination (Molinari et al., 2002), similar information was not available for the Italian extension.

Assessment information

Very Low Threat
Current threats throughout are considered very low and there is no evidence of damage. The need to carefully manage visitors is recognized within the management plan.
Temperature extremes
Low Threat
Inside site
, Throughout(>50%)
Outside site
High mountain environments are potentially susceptible to climate change. It is anticipated that the near complete forest cover of Monte San Giorgio should provide resilience in relation to environmental changes (IUCN, 2009)
Tourism/ visitors/ recreation
Very Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Outside site
Monte San Giorgio receives approximately 80-100,000 visitors per annum which is likely to increase as the site is further promoted. Potential impact could include increased erosion and pressure coming from visitor facilities. The need to carefully manage visitors is recognized within the management plan. For example, the Fossil Museum in Meride has been redeveloped and similar plans were implemented for the museums in Besano and Clivio (Italy). Also roads/ways access signalisation and clearly marked trails targeted at walkers and cyclist (mountain nike) will help manage visitor impact. Risks are therefore considered very low (Nomination - Transnational Management Plan and OFEV, 2013).
Avalanches/ Landslides
Very Low Threat
Inside site
, Scattered(5-15%)
Outside site
Occasional landslides/instability noted on Italian side, however, only marginally concern inscribed property and do not pose a threat to inscribed values (Nomination - Transnational Management Plan. IUCN, 2009).
Very Low Threat
Unmanaged collecting is recognized as a potential threat. However, currently there is no evidence of damage from unauthorized collecting. There is a good local awareness of the importance of Monte San Giorgio which also helps the overall monitoring of the site. The presence of trained/professional guides and some volunteers and local museums are also considered a deterrent to unauthorized collecting.
Other Activities
Very Low Threat
Inside site
, Localised(<5%)
Currently there is no evidence of damage from unauthorized collecting though it is recognized as a potential threat. There is a permit system in operation restricting collecting to research excavations. The remote nature of the site and the complexity and expertise required to collect specimens will also limit unauthorized collecting. There is a strong local awareness of the importance of Monte San Giorgio which also helps the overall monitoring of the site and the presence of volunteers and local museums is also considered a deterrent to unauthorized collecting. The threat is considered to be very low.
Fire/ Fire Suppression
Very Low Threat
Inside site
, Scattered(5-15%)
Forest Fire are potential risk, but it is recognised and addressed in the forest management strategies that are in place.
Current threats throughout are considered very low and there is no evidence of damage. The need to carefully manage visitors is recognized within the management plan. The site is relatively isolated reducing overall threat from collecting and is appropriately managed through a permit system. There is a strong local awareness of the importance of Monte San Giorgio which also helps the overall monitoring of the site and the presence of volunteers and local museums is also considered a deterrent to unauthorized collecting.
Relationships with local people
Effective
Key stakeholders are involved in the site and its management. Governing authorities at local, cantonal (CH) and regional (I) levels are part of the management structures for the site (http://www.montesangiorgio.org/Organizzazione/Chi-siamo.html) and contribute financially to the delivery of the management plan. The local museum of Besano and the Visitor Centre of Clivio as well as the Museum of fossils of Monte San Giorgio in Meride are central to the presentation of the site and provide an important connection between local communities, visitors and the site. On the Swiss side the Museo Cantonale di Storia Naturale of Lugano plays a fundamental role, since also responsible of the excavation campaigns. Trained guides and some volunteers are involved in the management of the site (OFEV, 2013, Nomination – Transnational Management Plan). Awareness of local people, as well as local businesses and organisations of OUV of the site could be improved.
Legal framework
Highly Effective
This is a transnational site with a legal framework operated in both the Swiss and Italian components of the property.
Switzerland – the landscape of Monte San Giorgio is identified on the Federal Inventory of Landscapes, Sites and Natural Monuments’ which encompasses the core property and buffer zone (review/ approved 29.03.2017; https://www.bafu.admin.ch/bafu/it/home/temi/paesaggio.html?_organization=811&_topic=29&_startDate=01.01.2016&_pageIndex=0).

Palaeontological heritage is the property of the state and regulated by cantonal law requiring permits for collecting.
Italy – the property and its buffer zone lie within a Landscape Protection Zone recognized within national law. Palaeontological heritage (considered to be the equivalent to cultural heritage) is the property of the state and regulated by national law requiring permits for collecting.
Enforcement
Highly Effective
The legal framework was considered appropriate on inscription and extension. It is supported and enforced through local plans, local staff, guides and volunteers and supported, where necessary, at a federal level. (IUCN, 2002 & 2009, Nomination – Transnational management Plan, http://www.montesangiorgio.org/Organizzazione/Chi-siamo/Organizzazione.html)
Integration into regional and national planning systems
Highly Effective
The site is well integrated into the local planning system.
Switzerland – Monte San Giorgio is identified within the Canton Development Plan as a Landscape Protection Zone and is similarly recognized in relevant Development Plans as a Nature Reserve. The fossil remains are specifically protected by the “Cantonal law on nature protection (2001)” of Canton Ticino which requires a permit for any collecting (IUCN, 2002, Nomination – Transnational Management Plan).
Italy – regional, provincial and local legislative frameworks are in place to protect the integrity of Monte San Giorgio and were considered effective at the time of inscription. It is also noted that the municipalities of Besano, Porto Ceresio and Viggiù applied for additional palaeontological ‘restraint’ in 2007(IUCN, 2009, Nomination – Transnational Management Plan, http://www.montesangiorgio.org/Organizzazione/Cosa-facciamo.html).
Management system
Effective
Following the addition of the Italian extension in 2010 a Transnational Management Plan was developed (its development being funded by an EU INTERREG III Project) and is governed by a Strategic Transnational Board. It identifies the values and objectives for the site and is used to guide the decisions made in managing, developing and promoting Monte San Giorgio. A transnational scientific commission took office at the beginning of 2014. In Switzerland management of the property is coordinated by both the Foundation of Monte San Giorgio and the Ticino Canton, at a local, cantonal and federal level. In Italy, the signing of the Convention of Monte San Giorgio (in 2008 and renewed in 2012) brought together relevant Italian parties (from a national to local level) to undertake the objectives of the Transnational Management Plan. The Convention is managed by the ‘Commission for planning and management of the Monte San Giorgio UNESCO site’ with the Mountain Community of Piambello taking on a co-ordination role.
(Nomination – Transnational Management Plan, IUCN, 2002 & 2009, OFEV, 2013).
A revision of the transnational management plan is foreseen (Accordo programmatico tra Confederazione CH e Canto Ticino concernente gli obiettivi programmatici nel settore Patrimonio mondiale deII‘UNESCO
Monte San Giorgio 2016-2019)
Management effectiveness
Highly Effective
No formal management effectiveness assessment has been conducted for the site. The management approach was considered effective on inscription (WHC, 2003) and extension (WHC, 2010) with the request to develop a co-operative transnational approach.
Implementation of Committee decisions and recommendations
Effective
In response to 34 COM 8B.6 the State of Conservation report (OFEV, 2013) confirmed the establishment of appropriate management commitment on the Italian side, the establishment of a transnational Board, the development of sustained financial resources and measures to achieve consistent transnational management and identity.
The World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies in 2013 took note of the collaboration between the States Parties of Italy and Switzerland to ensure effective management of the transboundary property, and recommended to them to urgently ensure that the Transnational Board become operational as soon as possible for the effective conservation and management of this property (Phnom Penh, Cambodia 16 - 27 June 2013 WHC-13/37.COM/7B.Add). The frequency of the meetings of the Transnational Board TNB in 2014 and 2015 was rare so that the joint projects advanced with difficulties and slowly. In 2014 a new transboundary agreement was presented based on the “Accordo quadro tra la Confederazione Svizzera e la Repubblica italiana per la cooperazione transfrontaliera delle collettività ed autorità regionali e locali: https://www.admin.ch/opc/fr/classified-compilation/19930044/199304260000/0.131.245.4.pdf . So far (July 2017) the agreement not been signed yet.
Boundaries
Highly Effective
The boundaries were considered effective at the time of inscription and extension. The core site follows the outcrop of Middle Triassic rocks on both Swiss and Italian sides. In Switzerland, the buffer zone is coincident with the Landscape Protection Zone. In Italy, the buffer zone relates to geomorphological and man-made features around the base of the mountain.
(IUCN, 2002 & 2009, Molinari et al, 2002, Nomination - Italian extension). In its Decision 34 COM 8B.6 the World Heritage Committee encouraged the State Party of Switzerland to bring forward a minor boundary modification proposal to accommodate the anticipated minor changes to the boundaries of the property and its buffer zone. No minor boundary modification proposal has been submitted to date.
Sustainable finance
Some Concern
Switzerland – sustained funding has been secured from several sources including the Swiss Confederation, the Ticino Canton, the Foundation of Monte San Giorgio, the Fonds Paleontologique Bernhard Peyer, contributions townships as well as income from tickets, tours and sales from the Fossil Museum of Monte San Giorgio. Rarely and in minor way contributions come from local businesses. There is substantial commitment of January 2016 including total funding of 1,217'020 CHF from the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) for 2017-2019. In addition, theTicino Canton finances the Foundation with 60’000.- yearly for the museum activities. Municipality of Mendrisio, Brusino, Riva San Vitale and Stabio support with overall 63’000.- CHF per year. . Italy – funding sources include the Commission for planning and management of the Monte San Giorgio UNESCO site (a 60,000 Euro endowment) and the support of approved bodies, assistance of third parties and wider sponsorship. There is less data available on the short and longer term funding. Projects, on-going and delivered, supporting the key targets of the management plan have secured an important figure from a mix of national, regional and local sources .There is not a clear analysis of whether funding is meeting anticipated needs as out in the Transnational Management Plan. (OFEV, 2013, Nomination – Transnational Management Plan).
Staff training and development
Highly Effective
Switzerland – the Foundation of Monte San Giorgio employs a site manager (starting from 01.01.2016 improvement from 50 to 60%) responsible for coordinating management projects and promoting and disseminating information about the site.

. A Museum Director (starting from 01.01.2016 improvement from 40% to 50%)), and two assistants (60% each) and 2 substitutes on call are responsible for the development and management of the museum (Convention 2016-2019 Ticino Canton – Monte San Giorgio Foundation). Further support is provided from the Cantonal Museum of Natural History (OFEV, 2013). Excavations are carried out by the Cantonal Museum of Natural History which also coordinates the scientific research activities.
Italy – a site manager has been established to coordinate the goals of the management plan. Further support is provided by the community of Piambello (OFEV, 2013).
There are also trained official guides associated with the site and some volunteers. The Visitor Centre of Clivio is not regularly open.
Sustainable use
Highly Effective
There is no overall assessment of resource sustainability. Site management, however, adopts a sustainable approach to collecting. Permit controlled collecting ensures the fossil resource (which is finite in extent) is excavated in controlled circumstances providing maximum scientific and educational gain from any collecting activity. Permits are issued to recognized research institutes only.
(IUCN, 2002 & 2009, Molinari et al, 2002, Nomination – Transnational Management Plan).
On the Swiss side in 2015 a 2016 due to financial restrictions no excavations could took place. On the Italian side excavations, since years, for several reasons, don’t take place.
Education and interpretation programs
Effective
There is an established and growing educational, interpretation and awareness raising programme.
There is a network of local museums associated with the site on both the Swiss and Italian sides including museums at Meride, Besano and Clivio. The redeveloped (2012) Meride Fossil Museum of Monte San Giorgio was opened providing a permanent exhibition space and a focus for visitors to the site. Tours and open days have been hosted for the general public and educational activities involving schools in excavations. Since the opening , the exhibition has been enriched with different multimedia supplies (i.g. audioguides; 3D animation etc.).
A multilingual website (www.montesangiorgio.org) has been established (and is being further developed) setting out the background to the site, management, research and current information about activities and events.
(IUCN, 2002 & 2009, Nomination – Transnational Management Plan).
Several projects were undertaekn in the last 5 years (http://www.montesangiorgio.org/en/Organizzazione/Cosa-facciamo/Progetti.html)

The transnational hiking trail, inaugurated in 2013. The trail could, however, be improved. Efforts to align the iInformation on the information panels between Swiss and Italian side were made under the supervision of the Transational Scientific Commission.
Tourism and visitation management
Highly Effective
80-100,000 per annum visitors are estimated and there is a clear awareness of the tourism value of the site with a growing provision for visitors. Since the opening of the Museum in Meride statistics are systematically held. There is not a specific tourism management plan; however, the Transnational Management Plan has a number of identified projects specifically aimed at supporting and managing visitors. At a local level Mendrisio Tourism is represented in the Monte San Giorgio Foundation and there has been an increasing local, regional, national and international media coverage of the activities within the site. Visitor impacts are managed to minimise harm through provision of visitor facilities, information and managed access such as guided tours.
(Nomination – Transnational management Plan, WCMC, 2011, www.montesangiorgio.org, OFEV, 2013).
At the moment there is no information available about systematic data collecting.
Monitoring
Effective
The is awareness of the necessity of a formal condition monitoring programme (the need for this was noted in extension evaluation (IUCN, 2009) which will be considered in the review of the Transnational management plan Local museums and guides, however, provide constant monitoring making unauthorised excavations difficult. On-going monitoring of compliance with national regulations in relation to palaeontological heritage is assured through the relevant national authorities. The successful on-going research effort associated with the site, and lack of evidence of unauthorized excavation, indicate that the management system is appropriate and maintaining the OUV.
Research
Highly Effective
There has been a long history of research excavation associated with the site which continues today. It is fully supported by the management plan and established management structures.
Since 1994 excavations have re-examined classic fossiliferous levels (Cava Inferiore, Cava Superiore, Kalkschieferzone, Cassina beds) and investigated the Sceltrich new fossil horizon (Stockar & Garassino 2013). Excavations and associated research continue to widen understanding of vertebrate paleontology (in particular fish eg. Lombardo, Tintori & Tona 2012), refined dating (Stockar, Baumgartner & Condon 2012) and modeling of basin evolution (Stockar, Adatte, Baumgartner & Föllmi 2013) and the study of new fossil groups, including insects (eg Bechly & Stockar, 2011) and radiolaria (Stockar, Dumitrica & Baumgartner 2012).
There is ongoing research on fossil material of Monte San Giorgio (MSG) in the collection of the Paleontological Institute and Museum, University of Zurich (PIMUZ) and of the Museo cantonale di stotia natural di Lugano. Overall, research is collaborative, linking universities and museums form across Switzerland and Italy and more widely, on specific projects, with institutions from around the world (eg Jadoul & Tintori, 2012). Undergraduate and postgraduate study of vertebrate palaeontology has also been possible.
(OFEV, 2013, www.montesangiorgio.org, Molinari et al., 2002, Nomination – Italian extension).
A transnational scientific commission took office at the beginning of 2014.
An updated list of scientific publications can be found under http://www4.ti.ch/dt/da/mcsn/temi/mcsn/il-museo/monte-san-giorgio/pubblicazioni-scientifiche/2017/
The protection and management of Monte San Giorgio is overall effective. There is cooperation between the Swiss and Italian components of the site at national, regional and local levels in both countries. There is overall commitment from local and regional government to the successful delivery of the management plan and awareness that it has to be reviewed. The Transnational Board encountered some difficulties to operate in a regular and effective way. The funding regime for the Italian component, however, does not always seem clearly established, particularly as far as the development of long-term sustained financial resources is concerned. Facilitation of site excavations has supported a considerable research output, the on-going research programme adding to the overall universal value of the site.
Assessment of the effectiveness of protection and management in addressing threats outside the site
Highly Effective
Monte San Giorgio is relatively remote and protected within its buffer. The site is therefore not subjected to threats from beyond the site’s boundary and buffer zone.
Best practice examples
The excavation and research programme provides an excellent example of sustainable management of a finite fossil resource in a remote area. This approach could be applied at other similar localities.
World Heritage values

Exceptional record of marine life from the Triassic Period and important remains of life on land

Good
Trend
Stable
There is currently no evidence of damage to the sites fossil resource. Collecting is carefully and appropriately managed through a permit system which supports collaborative research excavations which continue to add to our understanding of the sites geology and palaeontology. As a result the site’s geological values are in a good and stable state. (OFEV, 2013; www.montesangiorgio.org; www.montesangiorgio.org)
Assessment of the current state and trend of World Heritage values
Good
Trend
Stable
Monte San Giorgio continues to provide an exceptional resource for understanding the geological history and the evolution of life through the Middle Triassic Period. There is currently no evidence of damage to the sites fossil resource. Collecting is carefully and appropriately managed through a permit system. Over the last five years there has been a considerable research output as a result of coordinated research excavations and there is an on-going programme of site investigation and the development of interpretative facilities and initiatives. The site is therefore considered in a good state and stable.
Assessment of the current state and trend of other important biodiversity values
Data Deficient
Trend
Data Deficient
The biodiversity values of the site are inferred to be intact, however, no monitoring data is available.

Additional information

Water provision (importance for water quantity and quality)
Hydrological systems are important supporting a range of fresh water habitats and species
Contribution to education
There is a developing programme for public engagement. Activities for schools are organised. Undergraduate and post graduate students are involved in excavations
Outdoor recreation and tourism
Main tourism relates to outdoor recreational use - walking and potentially cycling and horse riding
History and tradition
There is a long association with scientific study which has a historical relevance in the development of our understanding of Middle Triassic palaeontology. There is also an association with mining (oil shales) and quarrying for stone (notably Viggù stone) with remnants of industrial development within the site.
Importance for research
There is a long history of research associated with the site which remains a global centre for research into the MiddleTriassic.
Provision of jobs
The local organisations created job roles (i.e. Site Manager, Museum director, Museum employees).
Tourism-related income
Since the opening of the new Museum in Meride in 2012 the region attracts more tourists.
The geological interest underpins the key benefits of Monte San Giorgio. It is globally significant to our knowledge and understanding of Middle Triassic palaeontology and continues to contribute to global, national and local research programmes. There are significant opportunities to develop the learning/educational potential of the site as the visitor centres and museums develop over the coming years. The remote montane forests of Monte San Giorgio and its associated wildlife, all influenced by underlying geology, are also paramount among the benefits this area provides to both local communities and visitors. Both the geology and wildlife provide economic benefits to the area acting as a draw for visitors, who contribute to the local economy, and the developing infrastructure of museums and visitor centres which celebrate Monte San Giorgio.
Organization/ individuals Project duration Brief description of Active Projects
1 Monte San Giorgio Foundation Monte San Giorgio website – on-going development
2 Monte San Giorgio Foundation (Switzerland) and Commission for planning and management ot the Monte San Giorgio UNESCO site (Italy) Develop a network of walking trails
3 Monte San Giorgio Foundation Meride Museum (opened 2012) – on-going development of new exhibition projects
4 Municipality of Besano Besano Museum- on-going development - Italy
5 Cantonal Museum of Natural History Palaeontological excavations and geological investigations throughout the Middle Triassic sequence– on-going - Switzerland
6 Commission for planning and management on the Monte San Giorgio UNESCO site (Italy) Clivio Museum ( Museo Insubrico di Storia Naturale) and visitor center- on-going development - Italy
Site need title Brief description of potential site needs Support needed for following years
1 . Monitoring – develop an approach to monitoring the condition key elements within the World Heritage Site

References

References
1 www.montesangiorgio.org
2 Bechly, G & Stockar, R, 2011. The first Mesozoic record of the extinct apterygote insect genus Dasyleptus (Insecta: Archaeognatha: Monura: Dasyleptidae) from the Triassic of Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland) Palaeodiversity 4: 23–37
3 H. Furrer and A.Vandelli, 2014 Guide of the Museum of fossils from the Monte San Giorgio, Fondazione del Monte San Giorgio
4 IUCN, 2002. World Heritage nomination – IUCN Technical Evaluation, Monte san Giorgio (Switzerland) ID no 1090.
5 IUCN, 2009. World Heritage nomination – IUCN Technical Evaluation, Monte san Giorgio (Italy) ID No 1090 bis
6 Jadoul, F & Tintori, A, 2012.Pan-European Correlation of the Triassic, 9th International Field Workshop September 1-5, 2012 The Middle-Late Triassic of Lombardy (I) and Canton Ticino (CH) 60pp
7 List of the scientific publications: http://www4.ti.ch/dt/da/mcsn/temi/mcsn/il-museo/monte-san-g…
8 Lombardo, C, Tintori, A & Tona, D, 2012. A new species of Sangiorgioichthys (Actinopterygii, Semionotiformes) from the Kalkschieferzone of Monte San Giorgio (Middle Triassic; Meride, Canton Ticino, Switzerland), Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 51 (3), 2012, 203-212. Modena
9 Molinari et al, 2002. Nomination of Monte San Giorgio for inclusion on the World Heritage List. Agency for the Environment, Forests and Landscape (SAEFL), Bern. 56pp, Appendices 277pp.
10 Nomination of Monte San Giorgio (Italian extension of Monte San Giorgio, Switzerland, inscribed in 2003) for inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List
11 Nomination of Monte San Giorgio (Italian extension of Monte San Giorgio, Switzerland, inscribed in 2003) for inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Transnational Management Plan - Abstract
12 OFEV, 2013. Rapport conjoint sur l’état de conservation du bien Monte San Giorgio, 17pp +annexes
13 Riva A., Maggiori M. & Panzini F. (2008). I funghi del Monte San giorgio. Rassegna Micologica Ticinese 6. 239 pp
14 Stockar R. & Garassino A. (2013). Meridecaris ladinica n. gen. n. sp. (Crustacea, Decapoda, Clytiopsidae) from the Middle Triassic (Ladinian) of Monte San Giorgio (Canton Ticino, Switzerland). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie 270(3): 347–356.
15 Stockar R., Adatte T., Baumgartner P.O. & Föllmi K. (2013). Palaeoenvironmental significance of organic facies and stable isotope signatures: the Ladinian San Giorgio Dolomite and Meride Limestone of Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland, WHL UNESCO). Sedimentology 60: 239–269.
16 Stockar R., Baumgartner P.O. & Condon D. (2012). Integrated Ladinian bio-chronostratigraphy and geochronology of the Monte San Giorgio section (Southern Alps, Switzerland). Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 105(1): 85–108.
17 Stockar R., Dumitrica P. & Baumgartner P.O. (2012). Early Ladinian radiolarian fauna from the Monte San Giorgio (Southern Alps, Switzerland): systematics, biostratigraphy and palaeo(bio)geographic implications. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 118, 375–437.
18 World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), 2011. Monte San Giorgio – Switzerland and Italy
19 World Heritage Committee (WHC), 2003. Inscription of Monte San Giorgio, 27COM 8C.7
20 World Heritage Committee (WHC), 2010. Monte San Giorgio approval of extension, 34COM 8B.6