Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park
In 1932 Waterton Lakes National Park (Alberta, Canada) was combined with the Glacier National Park (Montana, United States) to form the world's first International Peace Park. Situated on the border between the two countries and offering outstanding scenery, the park is exceptionally rich in plant and mammal species as well as prairie, forest, and alpine and glacial features.
2017 Conservation Outlook
Current state and trend of VALUES
Overall PROTECTION and MANAGEMENT
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Description of values
Unique ecological complexes
The 2010 WACAP study demonstrated the sensitivity of high elevation sites to air-borne contaminants (R47). Glacier's snowpack showed high levels of pesticide contamination, and high levels of nitrogen and sulphur were detected in lichens. Dieldrin concentrations in fish were significantly higher than similar studies found in Canada. PAH concentrations were highest at Snyder Lake than any other site tested in the study, presumably due to the aluminium smelter that was still in operation during the study. Fish sampled in Glacier also showed indication of oestrogen exposure based on vitellogenen content and presence of intersex fish. Sampled fish also tested positive for DDT, a pesticide that was banned for use in the U.S. in 1972, and chlordane (R47).
Alberta’s 2014 South Saskatchewan Land Use identified connectivity across Highway 3 as a biodiversity value. In 2017, the province of Alberta established Castle Provincial Park, enhancing the linkage between the IPP and Banff National Park. Bans on mining in the Flathead (R54, R55) have reduced risk of fragmentation as well. Waterton Biosphere Reserve, which includes Waterton National Park, has developed a carnivore conflict management program, working with local landowners to reduce risk factors to connectivity caused by human disturbance (R56).
Waterton and Glacier are also susceptible to aquatic invasive species introduced by people who travel from infected regions, including on watercraft, fishing gear, trailers, etc. Both parks are currently prohibiting launching of motorboats on park lakes in response to the recent finding of mussels, an aquatic invasive species, just east of the Continental Divide in the US portion of the Crown of the Continent (R46). Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) are moving west from the east both in Canada and in the US. AIS are also moving up from the Southwest. An active inspection and detection program is in place in BC, Alberta and Montana and in both parks (R7, R46). To date only Waterton and Glacier are prohibiting motorboats from launching in park waters. Non-native plants, fish, insects and pathogens are also affecting the flora and fauna of Waterton Lakes (R14). The efficacy of a program designed to suppress non-native lake trout in a backcountry Glacier NP lake shows promise, and could assist in recovery efforts of the native bull trout (R80).
The white-bark pine population of both parks and throughout the Crown of the Continent has been heavily impacted by blister rust, a non-native pathogen (R46, R68, R72). Waterton and Glacier have an active restoration program underway (R62). The Crown of the Continent is developing a Strategic Plan to guide restoration.
Drying soils, increased temperatures and potential wildfire incidents will combine to modify the scale and character of subalpine forests (R71), tree species prevalence and biome types (R73, R75, R74, R72, R76). Arctic-Alpine plants, especially dicots have declined in Glacier NP over the last two decades, due to climate change. With reduced glacial stream flow and higher water temperatures changes in native and non-native trout species (R78,R80 R81, R87), invertebrate (R82), and aquatic ecosystems in general have been observed (R79). Wildfire, which will increase with global warming, also appears to play an important role in amphibian population health (R84, R83).
Waterton Lakes-Glacier is nevertheless recognized as a “resilient landscape” with respect to large landscape connectivity and iconic North American wildlife and the place where Canada and the United States can implement adaptation measures and actions to maintain and enhance resource resilience to assure the Crown’s protection in the face of climate change. The Crown of the Continent Initiative is actively researching potential climate impacts (R48, R49)and has developed (and tracks) an action plan to address climate change impacts (R50, R86).
Visitation to Glacier National Park has increased significantly since 2012 when annual visitation was 2.1 million (R46). In 2016 visitation reached 2.9 million, over a 25% increase. Visitation at these levels is straining the operational capacity of the park, impacting resources and resulting in congestion and delays on roads, in parking areas and on trails (R46, R63).
Increased visitation can lead to negative impacts associate with motorized noise levels, for both wildlife and human visitors (R70).
Glacier National Park is working with Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad to address the risk of petroleum spills as a result of the increased train traffic carrying oil and gas from the Bakken Region to the east (R46). Glacier National Park is also working with the railroad to address wildlife safety and crossings. New research is underway to identify those crossing locations.
Glacier National Park was originally established as a National Park under its own legislation in 1910. It is Federal Land administered by the US Department of the Interior National Park Service, Washington, D.C., and managed from a parks headquarters in West Glacier, Montana (R23). The Peace Park was established in 1932 by parallel acts of the United States Congress and the Canadian Parliament. It was the world’s first Peace Park. Because it straddles the Canada-US border it is also governed by the Boundary Waters Treaty between Canada and the United States. The legal framework for the property is considered highly effective.
The emphasis of joint programs of the two parks has been on fire management, public safety and rescue operations, management of shared wildlife populations, control or eradication of non-native weeds and pest animals, maintenance and restoration of biodiversity and ecological processes, and impacts of habitat fragmentation (R23). Work on aquatic invasive species, including bans on motorcraft use have been implemented in both parks, to address a current growing threat (R46).
Glacier National Park has a number of programs in place to work towards carbon footprint reduction (R46). The park is working with community to do more regarding sustainability.
Both parks have recently been named as an International Dark Sky Park by the International Dark Sky Association (R46). Part of achieving this status required both parks to significantly expand the education and interpretive programs on dark skies. These programs are attracting many visitors every summer. Approximately 800 visitors are attending The Star Parties at Logan Pass in Glacier National Park each night they are held (3 per season).
Researchers studying the promotion of Leave No Trace backcountry camping practices at Glacier suggest communications that target perceived difficulty (or ease) or practicing LNT as well as targeting camping party group norms would be most beneficial for promoting pro-environmental camping behaviours (R66).
Innovative programs designed to mitigate negative ecological impacts and enhance visitor experiences have been invested in. Glacier NP and Waterton NP have long engaged in backcountry camping permitting programs (R65). Glacier NP established the Going-to-the-Sun- Road shuttle to ease congestion on this iconic highway and enhance visitor enjoyment and safety. While these goals have been achieved, the shuttle may have inadvertently added 40-60 day-long passenger vehicles parked at the Logan Pass parking lot; day hikers use this point as a convenient place to park and use the shuttle for loop day hikes (R64). The parking lot at Logan Pass reaches full capacity early each day of the summer months, exacerbating visitor congestion (R63).
During the 2016 visitor season Glacier NPs four largest campgrounds were fully booked (with the exception of a few camp sites nights) during the months of July and August (R63). Ecological footprints associated with high occupancy levels need to be managed carefully.
As mentioned, Glacier National Park and Waterton Lakes National Park together have been named as an International Dark Sky Park. They are the first transboundary park to receive this designation (R46). This designation requires both parks to continue improving their exterior lighting to protect dark skies and to work with neighboring communities. Additionally, Glacier National Park jointly manages the Flathead Wild and Scenic River with the Flathead National Forest.
• Native America Speaks; an educational and interpretive program by the National Park Service in cooperation with the Blackfeet and Salish-Kootenai tribes and the Glacier Conservancy where American Indian tribal members present interpretive programs for park visitors about traditional stories, practices, and folkways.
• Crown Managers Partnership: a cooperative effort by managers of both Glacier and Waterton Lakes national parks to involve adjacent land managers and political entities in a broad effort to coordinate management activities at a landscape scale.
• Reserved Water Rights Compacts: Development of formal, treaty-level compacts with both the State of Montana and adjacent Indian Tribes for water rights issues to insure necessary water for species conservation in Glacier National Park.
• Great Northern Landscape Conservation Cooperative The GNLCC partnership is network of U.S. federal, Canadian provincial and federal, Tribal Nations, state, academic, and conservation organizations. Working to achieve a collective landscape vision, the partnership implements a regional approach to address conservation issues across boundaries and jurisdictions by sharing data, science, and capacity (R46)
• South West Alberta Cooperative Weed Management Area manages noxious invasive weeds in cooperation between Waterton and local municipal governments, provincial parks, and Nature Conservancy of Canada (R60).
• The Restoring Terrestrial Ecosystems Together (RTET) project was a major 5-year investment of funds that were external to the park budget. The tripling of on-the-ground efforts to control non-native plants and restore grasslands and threatened whitebark and limber pine forests has made tremendous progress. Unfortunately, this external funding ended in 2014 at a time of budget and staff cuts and progress has not been maintained.
• As part of RTET, a pilot initiative to bring regional school children to the park for multi-day stays and field exercises attracted a major NGO funding partner. The program won a provincial Emerald Award.
• Working with UNESCO/IUCN to protect the North Fork drainage from mining development (R46).
• Potential cooperative fisheries restoration programs between State, USGS, and Glacier National Park, and on-going cooperative grizzly bear monitoring and management (R46).
• Flathead Community of Resource Educators (CORE) - a network of individuals and organizations working together to increase awareness and understanding about the natural, historical and cultural resources of the Flathead Region (R46).
• Rocky Mountains Cooperative Ecosystem Studies Unit that facilitates science and research connections between agencies and universities (R46).
• Rocky Mountain Inventory and Monitoring program for efficiencies in inventory & monitoring (R46).
• Waterton Biosphere Reserve Carnivore Working Group, public meetings with local municipalities to address wildlife conflict management and plan future action (R57).
• 2017 Multi-species Action Plan for Waterton National Park developed by Parks Canada to address management of species at risk in the park (R58), and associated research programs in the park for species reintroduction (leopard frog), non-native species reduction, and monitoring (bats, R59)
|№||Organization/ individuals||Project duration||Brief description of Active Projects|
|1||US National Park Service||
|All organizations and projects work through the Park. The Park’s current General Management Plan guides all conservation and management activity. See R22 at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/document.cfm?parkID=61&projectID=39894&documentID=44643 Individual projects are funded in terms of importance as outlined in various plans and park proposals. Projects done in conjunction with outside conservation groups and park partners are part of this process. Active park planning issues can be found at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/parkhome.cfm?parkID=61|
|2||Waterton Lakes & Glacier National Parks||
|Restoration of whitebark and limber pine forests|
|3||Waterton Lakes & Glacier National Parks||
|Control of non-native plants|
|4||Waterton Lakes & Glacier National Parks & Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resources||
|Population estimates of grizzly bears using hair snag from rub trees|
|5||Crown Managers Partnership||
|Crown Managers Partnership long-term transboundary conservation initiative for Crown of the Continent area. Conservation priorities are: bull trout/westslope cutthroat, grizzle bear, whitebark pine, meso-carnivores|
|6||Glacier National Park||
|Removal of non native lake trout and restoration of native bull trout|
|7||Waterton Lakes and Glacier National Parks, Alberta Environment and Parks, BC Environment, Montana State Fish& Wildlife||
|Aquatic invasive species management projects, including motorized watercraft ban in the National Parks.|
|8||Waterton Lakes & Glacier National Park||
|Habituated ungulate management -e.g., use of trained dogs to manage deer in communities (Waterton).|
|9||Waterton Lakes National Park||
|Northern Leopard Frog Reintroduction Project|
|10||Waterton Lakes National Park||
|Bat inventory, and tracking of white-nose syndrome.|
|11||Waterton National Park||
|Range assessment of grassland habitat to determine state of aspen forest and fescue grassland ecosystem.|
|12||Waterton Lakes National Park||
|Wildlife monitoring with remote cameras - examining travel through the Waterton valley|
|13||Waterton Lakes National Park||
|Whitebark pine restoration project - protection from blister rot, seed collection and other restoration activities.|
|14||Waterton Lakes National Park||
|Tracking ticks and Lyme disease - confirming abundance of key vectors (Rocky Mountain wood tick and American dog tick) into western Canada, and investigating genetic differences in tick populations.|
|15||Waterton Lakes National Park||
|Terrestrial invertebrate biodiversity study - initiated in 2005, survey of select habitats to enhance understanding of baseline abundance and distribution of terrestrial invertebrates.|
|16||Waterton Lakes National Park||
|Prescribed fire to restore grasslands. Restores grassland habitat lost through decades of fire suppression.|
|17||Waterton Lakes National Park||
|Salamander specific virus outbreak research and monitoring in tiger salamander population in the park, examining characteristics of this emerging virus and host salamander population.|
|18||Crown of the Continent Conservation Initiative||
|Climate change adaptation gap analysis - examining preparation and adaptation across the Crown Ecosystem|
|19||Great Northern Landscape Conservation Cooperative||
|A network of US federal, Canadian provincial and federal, Tribal Nations, state, academic, and conservation organizations working to acheive a collective landscape vision. The Crown of the Continent falls within the boundaries of this cooperative.|
|1||"Transboundary Cooperation to achieve wilderness protection and large landscape conservation," Locke, Harvey; 2011-2012 Park Science, US National Park Service|
|2||Adams, A. (2009) Invasive Weeds in Glacier National Park: Habitat, Vectors of Spread, and Areas at Greatest Risk of Invasion. MS Thesis, Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, North Carolina. URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10161/1023|
|3||Alberta, Government of 2014. South Saskatchewan Regional Plan, 2014-24. https://landuse.alberta.ca/LandUse%20Documents/SSRP%20Final…|
|4||Avalanche Hazard Reduction. By Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway In Glacier National Park and Flathead National Forest, Montana, Final Environmental Impact Statement, June 2008|
|5||Bay, L., Broberg, L., Carlson, A., Cross, M., Deuel, K., Hanna, D. No Date. Climate-impacts assessment of the Crown of the Continent. Bozeman, Montana: Crown of the Continent Conservation Initiative.|
|6||Bear Management Plan, Glacier National Park, US Department of the Interior, West Glacier, Montana, May 2010|
|7||British Columbia, Province of and State of Montana, 2010. Memorandum of Understanding and Understanding on Environmental Protection, Climate Change and Energy http://www.gov.bc.ca/igrs/attachments/en/MTEnvCoop.pdf|
|8||CPAWS. 2017. Flathead River Valley. Retrieved from http://cpawsbc.org/campaigns/flathead|
|9||Canada, Government of, 2013. “Government of Canada Divestiture of Crown Lands [Dominion Coal Blocks]”. http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/media-room/news-release/2013/11416|
|10||Chief Mountain Landowners. (2011). ‘Chief Mountain cumulative effects study: assessing the footprint of human activity in southwest Alberta’. <http://www.watertonbiosphere.com/uploads/biosphere-resource…;. Accessed 10 February 2013.|
|11||Clevenger, A. et al, 2010. Highway 3: Transportation Mitigation for Wildlife and Connectivity. Western Transportation Institute. Bozeman, Montana.|
|12||Comments and Observations to the UNESCO/IUCN Reactive Monitoring mission of September 2009, Re: Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park World Heritage Site.|
|13||Craig, D.R., Yung, L., Borrie, W.T. (2012) Blackfeet Belong to the Mountains: Hope, Loss, and Blackfeet Claims to Glacier National Park, Montana. Conservation & Society; 10:232-42.|
|14||Crown Managers Partnership (n.d.) Climate Change Adaptation. Transboundary Conservation Initiative Face sheet. <http://crownmanagers.org/storage/TCI%20factsheet%20CCA.pdf&…;|
|15||Crown Managers Partnership (n.d.) Native Salmonids - Transboundary Conservation Initiative Fact sheet. <http://crownmanagers.org/storage/TCI%20factsheet%20Salmonid…;|
|16||Crown Managers Partnership (n.d.) Terrestrial Invasive Species - Transboundary Conservation Initiative Fact sheet. <http://crownmanagers.org/storage/TCI%20factsheet%20Terrestr…;|
|17||Crown Managers Partnership, “NPScape Products,” November 2010, http://www.crownmanagers.org/cce-landscapes-analysis/|
|18||D'Angelo, V.S. and Muhlfeld, C.C., 2013. Factors influencing the distribution of native Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in streams of western Glacier National Park, Montana. Northwest Science, 87(1): 1-11.|
|19||Duffield, J.W., Neher, C.J., Patterson, D.A., & Deskins, A.M. 2013. Effects of wildfire on national park visitation and the regional economy: a natural experiment in the Northern Rockies. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 22: 1155-1166.|
|20||Email 28 June 2017, Comments on IUCN Report from Glacier National Park. Tara Carolin, Director of the Crown of the Continent Research Learning Center and Mary Riddle, Chief of Planning and Environmental Compliance, Glacier National Park.|
|21||Final General Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement, Record of Decision, and Summary, National Park Service, Glacier National Park, 1999|
|22||Fredenberg, C.R., 2014. Efficacy of suppressing non-native lake trout in an isolated backcountry lake in Glacier National Park (Doctoral dissertation, Montana State University-Bozeman, College of Letters & Science).|
|23||Giersch, J.J., Jordan, S., Luikart, G., Jones, L.A., Hauer, F.R. and Muhlfeld, C.C., 2014. Climate-induced range contraction of a rare alpine aquatic invertebrate. Freshwater Science, 34(1): 53-65.|
|24||Hall, M.H.P. and Fagre, D.B. (2003) Modeled Climate-Induced Glacier Change in Glacier National Park, 1850-2100. BioScience 53: 131-140.|
|25||Hansen, A.J. & Phillips, L.B. 2015. Which tree species and biome types are most vulnerable to climate change in the US northern Rocky Mountains? Forest Ecology and Management. 338: 68-83.|
|26||Harvey, B.J. 2015. Causes and consequences of special patterns of fire severity in northern Rock Mountain forests: The role of disturbance interactions and changing climate. PhD (Zoology) dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.|
|27||Harvey, B.J., Donato, D.C., & Turner, Monica G. 2016. High and dry: Post-fire tree seedling establishment in subalpine forests decreases with post fire drought and large stand-replacing burn patches. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 25: 255-669.|
|28||Hossack, B.R., Lowe, W.H. and Corn, P.S., 2013. Rapid Increases and Time‐Lagged Declines in Amphibian Occupancy after Wildfire. Conservation Biology, 27(1), pp.219-228.|
|29||Hossack, B.R., Lowe, W.H., Ware, J.L. and Corn, P.S., 2013. Disease in a dynamic landscape: host behavior and wildfire reduce amphibian chytrid infection. Biological Conservation, 157: 293-299.|
|30||IUCN (1995) World Heritage Nomination - IUCN Technical Evaluation, Waterlton Glacier International Peace Park (Canada/United States of America). <http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/354/documents/>. Accessed 10 February 2013.|
|31||Jack Stanford, Professor and Director of the Flathead Lake Biological Station, University of Montana (personal communication)|
|32||Keane, R.E. et al., 2017. Evaluating future success for whitebark pine ecosystems restoration under climate change using simulation modeling. Restoration Ecology, 25(2): 220-233.|
|33||Konstant W, Locke H. and Hanna,W. (2005) Waterton-Glacier: The first of its Kind; in Mittermeier et. al. "Transboundary Conservation", Cemex DF Mexico.|
|34||Kulakowski, D., Kaye, Margot W., & Kashian, D.M. 2013. Forest Ecology and Management. 299: 52-59.|
|35||Landers, D.H., S.L. Simonich, D.A. Jaffe, L.H. Geiser, D.H. Campbell, A.R. Schwindt, C.B. Schreck, M.L. Kent, W.D. Hafner, H.E. Taylor, K.J. Hageman, S. Usenko, L.K. Ackerman, J.E. Schrlau, N.L. Rose, T.F. Blett, and M.M. Erway. (2008) The Fate, Transport, and Ecological Impacts of Airborne Contaminants in Western National Parks (USA). EPA/600/R-07/138. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, NHEERL, Western Ecology Division, Corvallis, Oregon. http://www.nature.nps.gov/air/Studies/air_toxics/wacap.cfm Accessed 20 February 2013.|
|36||Landers, D.H., et al. 2010.The Western Airborne Contaminant Assessment Project (WACAP): An Interdisciplinary Evaluation of the Impacts of Airborne Contaminants in Western U.S. National Parks. Environmental Science & Technology 44:855-859.|
|37||Leisica, P. 2014. Arctic-alpine plants decline over two decades in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. 2014. Arctic, Antartic, and Alpine Research, 46(2): 327-332.|
|38||Levesque, L.M. (2005). ‘Investigating landscape change and ecological restoration: an integrated approach using historical ecology and GIS in Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta’. MSc thesis. Victoria: University of Victoria.|
|39||Locke ,H , 2011-12. Transboundary Cooperation to Achieve Large Landscape Conservation and Wilderness Protection, Park Science Vol 28, No.3 . US Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Washington.|
|40||Locke, H. and McKinney, 2013. “The Flathead River Basin” in Water Without Borders, E. Norman et al 193- 220. University of Toronto Press|
|41||Manning, R.E. 2011. “No bad trip in Glacier” Managing Outdoor Recreation: Case Studies in the National Parks. Pp. 150-154.|
|42||Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks http://fwp.mt.gov/fishAndWildlife/species/ais/molluscs.html|
|43||Muhlfeld, C.C., Kovach, R.P., Jones, L.A., Al-Chokhachy, R., Boyer, M.C., Leary, R.F., Lowe, W.H., Luikart, G. and Allendorf, F.W., 2014. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change. Nature Climate Change, 4(7): 620-624.|
|44||National Park Service, Business Opportunity, Concessions http://www.concessions.nps.gov/glac002-14.htm|
|45||Natural Resources Canada. 2014. Divesture of the Dominion Coal Blocks. Retrieved from: https://www.nrcan.gc.ca/environmental-assessment/public-sta…|
|46||Nelson, R. 2014. A Climate Change Adaptation Gap Analysis for the Crown of the Continent. Boozeman, Montana: Crown of the Continent Conservation Initiative|
|47||Nickerson, N. 2016. Montana’s Crowded Parks: Record visitation is taking its toll. Montana Business Quaterly, Spring 2017: 10-15.|
|48||Northern Rocky Mountains Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey; http://www.nrmsc.usgs.gov/research/global.htm|
|49||Northrup, JM, Pitt, J., Muhly, TB, Stenhouse, GB, Musiani, M., Boyce, MS. 2012. Vehicle traffic shapes grizzly bear behaviour on a multiple-use landscape. J. of Appl. Ecol. 49 (5): 1159-1167.|
|50||Note: Glacier National Park and the Blackfoot Nation’s Reserved Rights: Does a Valid Tribal Co-Management Authority Exist? Sholer, Curt; 29 Am. Indian L. Rev. 151|
|51||Parks Canada Agency. 2017. Multi-species Action Plan for Waterton Lakes National Park of Canada and Bar U Ranch National Historic Site of Canada [Proposed]. Species at Risk Act Action Plan Series. Ottawa: Parks Canada.|
|52||Parks Canada. (2008). ‘Waterton Lakes National Park of Canada state of the park report’. <http://www.pc.gc.ca/pn-np/ab/waterton/plan/plan1/plan1c.asp…;. Accessed 10 February 2013.|
|53||Parks Canada. (2010). Waterton Lakes National Park of Canada park management plan’. <http://www.pc.gc.ca/pn-np/ab/waterton/plan/plan1/plan1c.asp…;. Accessed 10 February 2013.|
|54||Peterson, C. (2013) “Glacier Raft Company Sale,” Hungry Horse News, Montana (16 January 2013) http://www.flatheadnewsgroup.com/hungryhorsenews/article_55…|
|55||Proctor, M.F., Nielsen, S.E., Kasworm, W.F., Servheen, C., Radandt, T.G., Machutchon, A.G., Boyce, M.S. 2015. Grizzly bear connectivity mapping in the Canada-United States trans-border Region. J. Wildlife Mgmt. 79(4): 544-558.|
|56||Reuling, M., S. Johnson, S. Higgins, P. Bixler, S. Williams, and G. Tabor. 2015. Adapting to change in the Crown of the Continent; an ecosystem scale approach to collaborative management. Bozeman, Montana: Center for Large Landscape Conservation|
|57||Richard Hauer F, Stanford JA and Lorang MS (2007) Pattern and Process in Northern Rocky Mountain Headwaters: Ecological Linkages in the Headwaters of the Crown of the Continent. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, Vol. 43, No. 1.|
|58||Richard Hauer F. (2007) Assessment of Septic Leachate: A Survey of Lake McDonald Glacier National Park. Flathead Lake Biological Station, University of Montana.|
|59||Roush, W.M. (2009). “A substantial upward shift of the alpine treeline ecotone in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains’. MSc thesis. Victoria: University of Victoria.|
|60||Scott, T. (2012) “Oil Exploration Plans Suspended at Blackfeet Sacred Site,” Missoulian, Montana (18 March 2012) http://missoulian.com/news/local/oil-exploration-plans-susp…|
|61||Slemmons, K.E., Saros, J.E. and Simon, K., 2013. The influence of glacial meltwater on alpine aquatic ecosystems: a review. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 15(10):1794-1806.|
|62||Smith, C.M., Shepherd, B., Gillies, C., and Stuart-Smith, J. (2013). ‘Changes in blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine over time’. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 43:90-96.|
|63||Smith, C.M., Wilson, B., Rasheed, S., Walker, R.C., Carolin, T., and Shepherd, B. (2008). ‘Whitebark pine and white pine blister rust in the Rocky Mountains of Canada and northern Montana’. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 38:982–995.|
|64||Smith-McKenna, E.K. et al., 2014. Cascading effects of feedbacks, disease, and climate change on alpine treeline dynamics. Environmental Modelling & Software. 62: 85-96.|
|65||Spencer, C.N., McClelland, B.R., Stanford, J.A. (1991) Shrimp Stocking, Salmon Collapse, Eagle Displacement, Cascading interactions in the food web of a large aquatic ecosystem. BioScience, Vol. 41, No. 1.|
|66||Squires, J.R. et al. 2013. Combinig resource selection and movement behavior to predict corridors for Canada lynx at their southern range periphery. Biological Conservation, 157: 187-195.|
|67||St. Mary River-Milk River Basin Study Draft Report; US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, January 2012|
|68||To Authorize the Issuance of Right-of-way Permits for Natural Gas Pipelines in Glacier National Park, HR 4606, US Congress (112th session), House Report 112-627, US Government Printing Office (2012)|
|69||Tomback, D.F., Chipman, K.G. Resler, L.M., Smith-McKenna, E.K., & Sith, C.M. 2014. Relative abundance and functional role of whitebark pine at treeline in the northern Rocky Mountains. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. 46(2): 407-418.|
|70||UNESCO (2010) Report on the State of Conservation of Waterton Glacier International Peace Park. State of Conservation Information System of the World Heritage Centre. <http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/354/documents/>. Accessed 10 February 2013.|
|71||UNESCO and IUCN (2009) Reactive Monitoring Mission Report: Waterton Glacier International Peace Park (Canada/United States of America). Paris, France and Gland, Switzerland: UNESCO World Heritage Centre and IUCN.|
|72||UNESCO. (2006). ‘2006 periodic report on the application of the World Heritage Convention’. <http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/docs/pm-wh/rspm-whsr/rapports-repor…;. Accessed 10 February 2013.|
|73||US Code of Federal Regulations, 16 USC 170, Hunting and Fishing|
|74||Unknown. (2009). ‘Statements of significance and statements of outstanding universal value for Canada’s World Heritage Sites’. 9 pp.|
|75||Vagias, W., Powell, R.B., Moore, D.D., & Wright, B. 2014.Predicting behavioral intentions to comply with recommended leave no trace practices. Leisure Sciences, 36: 439-457.|
|76||Waterton Biosphere Reserve. 2017. Carnivores and Communities Retrieved from: www.watertonbiosphere.com/projects/carnivores-communities/|
|77||Waterton Biosphere Reserve. 2017. Tag Archives: Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan. Retrieved from: www.watertonbiosphere.com/tag/grizzly-bear-recover-plan/|
|78||Waterton Biosphere Reserve. 2017. WBR Cooperation Plan 2016-2021. Retrieved from: www.watertonbiosphere.com/about-waterton-biosphere-reserve/…|
|79||Waterton Lakes National Park. 2017. Partners. Retrieved from: www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/ab/waterton/info/partenaires-partners|
|80||Waterton Lakes National Park. 2017. Protection and Restoration. Retrieved from: www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/ab/waterton/info/index/enviro/protect…|
|81||Waterton Lakes National Park. 2017. Research: Ecological Initiatives. Retrieved from: https://www.pc.gc.ca/en/pn-np/ab/waterton/info/recherche-re…|
|82||Weinberg, A. B. 2014. An empirical test of the effectiveness of an indirect management tool in increasing optional shuttle use at Glacier National Park. Unpuliblish Thesis, Master of Science, The University of Montana.|
|83||Weinzimmer, D. et al. 2014. Human response to simulated motorized noise in National Parks. Leisure Sciences, 36: 251-267.|
|84||Wildland Fire Use: Managing for a Fire-Smart Landscape, Fire Science Digest, January 2009|
|85||Wildlife Conservation Society. 2016. Home again: WCS and Blackfeet Nation partner to bring buffalo back to their original homeland. Press Release. New York: Wildlife Conservation Society|
|86||Wines, M. 2014. Climate change threatens to strip the identity of Glacier National Park. The New York Times, 2014/11/23.|
|87||World Heritage Committee (1995) Decision 19 COM VIIIA.1. Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (Canada/United States of America). Berlin, Germany. <http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/354>.|
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